The article deals with the case of the Spanish missionary Francisco Xavier activities in Asia in the 16th century. The necessity of developing and approbating Western international strategies in the countries of the East led the Europeans to expand the study of the societies, cultures and religious practices of the peoples of the East, when contacts with "Others" demanded a comprehension and interpretation of the origin and nature of ethno-cultural diversity. The letters and reports to Europe written by Xavier gave a picture of Japanese life, and thus making the Spanish “construction” of Japan during the second half of the 16th century.
The article deals with the restoration of Spanish-Russian diplomatic relation after declaring by Russia in 1836 the ascension of Isabel II unlawful and severing diplomatic relations until 1856. The author studies the crucial questions of these relations in the second half of the 19th century, taking into account the missions of such Russian and Spanish diplomats, as Mikjail Golytsin, Mariano Osuna and Mikhail Gortchakov.
In the article makes analysis of the negotiations which preceded the conclusion of the Polish-Soviet Pact of non-aggression in 1932. The study is based on the sources that input firstly on scientific field. Author contradicted the prevailing in the scientific literature opinion that by the Soviet initiative negotiations was resumed in 1930. The article discusses the influence on the negotiation process of third countries. Agreement was more a result of changes in the political situation in the world, rather than just an expression of good will. It was possible only because of the weakening of Poland's position in Europe. Politics of Poland and the Soviet Union were equally not inclined to see in Pact real guarantees and commitments, but saw it as an opportunity to normalize relations, as well as demonstrations to the third countries.