This article traces the evolution of dohada-motif in ancient biographies of the Buddha. This biographies are known in different languages. Besides, I tried to reveal the main features and functions of this motif in the legend. Among the variety of dohadas mentioned in the lives of the Buddha, I focus on the desire of a pregnant woman to take a walk in the woods: in many texts such a desire of Maya explains an unusual place of birth of the Bodhisattva.
The principle of communality is denoted as the ability of the originally and essentially communal worldview, consciousness, behavioral pattern, socio-political norms and relations to spread on all the levels of societal complexity including, though in modified or sometimes even corrupted form, sociologically supra- and non-communal. As a pivotal socio-cultural foundation, the principle of communality has a direct impact on all subsystems of the African society at all the levels of its being throughout its whole history. Precisely this is what can explain to a large extent the originality of African culture, African civilization. In the embodiment of the principle of communality it can also make sense to seek the roots of specificity of the historical process in sub-Saharan Africa.
The article continues to look into the concept of “sacrality” in the East, continuing the discussion of concepts earlier formulated in the introduction to the eponymous collection of articles published by the IOS RAS in 2017 and partially challenged in a review published in Vostok /Oriens two years later. In this publication, the author, himself the executive editor, author of the introduction and one of the articles in the collection, defends his views on a number of urgent subjects raised both in the collection and in the review. These problems touch upon the relationship between government and society in the West and the East; the paramount importance of the nomadic periphery to the formation of a strong state in the East; the key historical and political differences that underlie the divergent development of Western Europe and Asia and Africa. Speaking about the much-sought issue of Occidentalistics as an academic research field, the author expresses confidence that it is the Orientalist historian who possesses sufficient material, knowledge and a favorable starting position to study the differences in the historical development of both the West and the East, the definition of which is further discussed in the article. The publication looks at a number of general issues, including the understanding of the “natural” course of historical process; the relationship between religious and secular power in the East and the West; how institutional evolution influenced the configuration of society; and finally why East developed slower than West due to the need to strengthen the state that existed under a constant threat of invasions by peoples within the nomadic range.
After the end of the Cold War, the USA was probably in the most favorable geopolitical
conditions in which a great power has ever found itself during the whole history of the world. The Eurasian
continental massif – the “world island”, as it was called by Halford Mackinder – turned out to be
dissected into “flanks” and “center”, where the leading powers focused on their macro-regions problems
and less interested in the fate of their neighbors. During two decades, the Russian leadership has been
looking for a foothold on one of these flanks – the European one, formulating its policy through the prism
of the concept of building a “Greater Europe” - a territory that includes all European and EAEU member
countries. Economically, Greater Europe was supposed to create a common market from Lisbon to
Vladivostok, where there are no barriers to business and there are common rules that are clear to everyone.
However, in recent years, the nature of Russian politics has undergone fundamental changes – Russia
began to demonstrate its desire to act as a “collector” of the single geopolitical space of the Eurasian
continent. In this article, the authors analyze the structural prerequisites that caused the gradual departure of
Russia's foreign policy from the concept of building a Greater Europe in favor of the formation of a new
geopolitical and geo-economic structure – Greater Eurasia. This conceptual framework of geopolitical,
geo-economic and geostrategic rapprochement of states is aimed at turning Eurasia into the center of
world economy and politics. In their study, the authors give a brief overview of foreign and domestic
works on the geo-economic consolidation of Greater Eurasia.
Greater Eurasia is a joint project of its member states, ready to go towards a common goal. One of
the projects, to which this article is devoted, is the analysis of Russian-Chinese rapprochement, whose actions
in the SCO were previously constrained by the desire to restrain each other's influence, as well as
the reaction to it from the United States.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the plot of “the first sermon” as represented in the “Sutra of the blessed appearance of the prince”, translated into Chinese by Zhi-qian (III AD) and not preserved as an Indian text. The story represented in this sutra is very original, it is unique in the Buddhist literature. The main difference is the unusual localization of events: there is no moving from Uruvilvā as the place of enlightenment, to Mr. gadāva worshipped as the place of the first sermon. Consideration of the variations of the story in different texts of early Buddhist literature reveals a gradual evolution of the plot; comparing these fragments with the version of Zhi-qian, we can see that the version like preserved in the Chinese sutra may be an initial one. Probably the reason of changes in the geography of Buddhism was the assignment of the sacred space of the pre-Buddhist India.
The article discusses a postulate of the leading Russian Sumerologist Vladimir Emelianov (Voprosy filosofii 2011, No. 8). He states that only the modern scholarship since the eighteenth century has developed the method of “archaeological penetration” into the ancient history that allowed seeing in its epochs the reflections of here-and-now. Its background was the feeling of historical process. The division of history into big epochs was totally absent, according to Emelianov, in early antiquity and in Ancient Egypt. Here he strongly opposes the idea of Jan Assmann that each new epoch of Egyptian history addressed the “cultural memory” of the past to position itself as a return to it. However, the analysis shows that the Egyptian sources, i.e. the Royal Canon of Turin and the work by Manetho, as well as the reception of Egyptian historiography by Classical authors reveal conceptualized division of the past into big periods. Addressing ancient archives, researching and restoring ancient monuments was an important practice for Ancient Egyptians. This idea is expressed in the Papyrus Westcar, the first cycle of Setne Khamwas, the Famine Stela, the activities of the historical Prince Khaemweset etc. The ideological concept of return to the great past is exemplified best of all in the Renaissance of the Saite time (the seventh and the sixth centuries BCE). However, earlier epochs of Egyptian history also give similar examples, for example, the aspiration of kings in the late First Intermediate Period and the early Middle Kingdom to return capital to Memphis, i.e. in a sense, to return to the Old Kingdom. Thus, Emelianov’s postulate reveals an impressive ignorance of real evidence.
The article examines the trends of the recruitment channels to the Cabinet of ministers in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1989 till 2017. It intends to fill the lacunae in the literature on Cabinets and ministerial elites of Iran. The theoretical framework is based on the literature dedicated to the Cabinet formation in Europe and Middle East. The biographical analysis is a research method of the paper. Publicly available aggregated data on 274 ministers and vice-presidents in seven governments is the key source of information. The first conclusion is the faction institutionalization inside the government occurred in 1993. In addition, every president created his own team for governance. The army is also an important group playing a significant role during particular periods. The second conclusion shows that dominating areas of studies switched from technocrats to specialists in humanities. The Cabinets were relatively ‘westernized’ regarding permanent presence of members with western education. Nevertheless, a sustainable majority of the members of Cabinets always had Iranian education. The third conclusion is that there is a high level of professionalization of governments: the key recruiting group was bureaucracy; the second group were academic scientists. The military, clergy, professionals had become the second group only for one term, while scholars kept their role during all the period. The fourth conclusion is that clericalization of the cabinets remained relatively low. The representation of the IRGC veterans gradually increased during approximately all the period reflecting militarization of the Cabinets. The fifth conclusion is that the share of natives from regional capitals remained high during the period, being more than 50%. The key provinces for recruitment were Tehran and Isfahan.
The article examines legal developments of the Khanates of Bukhara and Khiva in the first half of the nineteenth century as they reflected by Russian and British travellers who visited these states during the period under review. In these times, the contacts of the European states with Bukhara and Khiva did increase, and the Europeans, mostly Russian and Englishmen, sought for the most complete and relevant information on these states. Travellers who were diplomats, tradesmen, scientists and intelligence officers paid special attention to specific features of legal relations in the Central Asian Khanates. The article offers a reconstruction of principles and regulations for different fields of legal relations in Bukhara and Khiva as they were seen by Western travellers. The author also aims to clarify a degree of conformity of legal realities of Bukhara and Khiva to the basic principles of Islamic law which formally had the leading position in these states.
The article highlights the results of field research conducted in Tanzania in 2018-2019, focused on the historical memory of the Arab slave trade in East Africa and the Indian Ocean in the 19th century and its influence on the interethnic relations in the country nowadays. Over 130 structured and non-structured interviews were done in Dar es Salaam, Bagamoyo, Kaole, Tanga, Pangani, and Zanzibar. Respondents were asked what they remember about the slave trade, who were the slave traders, to which countries slaves were shipped finally, which tribes were the most affected, or, on the contrary, tribes and leaders which were involved in this business and were selling their tribesmen to the traders, etc.
This article summarizes Tanzanians’ perceptions of the 19th century slave trade geography, specifically locations in the country that are known for being related to these tragic events, and directions of the export of slaves from Zanzibar, the main slave market in the region.
It became clear that the most famous geographical point on the continent is Bagamoyo, which is positioned as the main exit point of the mainland, from which slaves were taken to Zanzibar. This contradicts historical reality, but allows the city, which has many advantages and a truly rich history, to become the leading direction of domestic tourism in the country. Speaking about the final destination, where slaves were taken, a huge number of respondents named Europe. The article offers an explanation of this situation.
This article is devoted to the transition of the Arab countries according to the new concept of sustainable development (SD) in tourism, sea and air transport. The challenges associated with the transition to SD implemented in state long-term state strategies in the Arab countries. The surge of interest to this concept of development was also due to the release of 17 UN SDGs in 2015, which replaced the Millennium Development Goals. The general questions of the development of GCC countries at the beginning of the 21 st century and the main prerequisites for creating large infrastructure facilities in the region owing to the increase of tourist inflow, especially the increasing number of Muslim pilgrims coming to Saudi Arabia, raised at the
beginning of the article. There is a brief overview of the national air carriers and the system of large air hubs in the UAE and Qatar and data on SDG Index No. 9 “Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure” in the GCC countries for 2017 and 2018. The article concludes with the results of the investigation on the effect that the Persian Gulf monarchies have achieved in the field of passenger and cargo transportation as well as the problems of operating aviation infrastructure facilities in the context of the transition to SD. It is also shown that the CONVID-19 pandemic and economic downturn would definitely cause the cessation of air travel in several countries in the spring of 2020.
The article deals with the problem of interpretation of the scenes where one person pulls the beard of another one or two persons pull the beard each other. These scenes were relatively widespread throughout Western Europe, the Caucasus, Transcaucasia, and Albania between the sixth and twelfth centuries. The authors identified some scenes as “Joseph’s dream”, an illustration to an apocryphal episode of “Acts of John”.