This article studies the concept of web 3.0, and gives definitions to its major features as we see them. We analyse the interconnections and specific traits of web 3.0 when it is used in e-commerce. The article views the solutions business employs currently, as well as gives prognosis of how business will use web 3.0 in the future.
In 1971 in his Nobel lecture Simon Kuznets noted that the population growth had been ceasing to be the main force
of the economic growth over the last one or two decades. Accordingly, the authors have examined the contemporary
demographic situation in the world based on information given in United Nations (UN) population prospects. This paper
describes the global demographic balance method that includes 5 age cohorts of the population of 20 countries and regions
of the world for the last period of 1950-2010 and UN Population Prospect to 2050. This method has been applied to
analyze quantitative parameters of the demographic situation in developed, least developed and in developing countries.
Developed countries, which had passed the demographic transition, will face a depopulation pattern in XXI. The age
structure of depopulation trends in these countries is given. In least developed countries the population growth has been
persisting but not at so high pace as it was in the second half of the 20
century. BRICS countries stand out from developing
countries. To assess qualitative characteristics of countries of the world the Human Development Index (HDI) has been
used. This paper outlines characteristics of this indicator given by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
HDI values for BRICS countries are specified, and a conclusion has been drawn that qualitative growth is needed for
economies of these countries. Outputs of world population simulation and projections by G.P. Gorshkov, B.M. Dolgopolov
and A.A. Akayev, adjusted for the biosphere ultimate capacity, are presented. A conclusion has been formulated that
projections by S.P. Kapitsa and UN experts that disregard the biosphere ultimate capacity are more realistic.
The paper represents methods of expert data collection, consolidation and evaluation for the purpose of development of knowledge bases. The methods assume processing the data with software tools. The data obtained are used for foresight studies, long-term forecasting and development of technology roadmaps (TRM). The technique provides users with the possibility to take various features of an expert into account, as well as to map expert data onto the field of interest of the TRM customer.
The article is based on the results obtained by participants research seminar the faculty of business Informatics of the Higher School of Economics. Objective – to study the possibilities of learning management as a process and application of modern information technologies and tools. The learning process is defined as joint activity of participants for organization of study discipline, receive regular and procedural knowledge. For research the learning process discipline "Modeling and optimization of business processes" was chosen. The features of learning process, requirements of process management, modeling and assessment capabilities of automated process management were defined. The analysis is based on information of real process Faculty of Business Informatics. Requirements for learning process were identified. Different notations for modeling were used: eEPC (ARIS); interaction diagram and behavior diagram (Metasonic). It was shown that satisfaction of requirements for process is provided on subject-oriented approach and it is almost impossible for classical approach. Principles of sharing the learning process into smaller processes, process models (interaction diagrams and behavior diagrams of subjects) are developed. Possibility of changing process management with help of subjects (teachers, students) without programming, including the automated generation of workflow application were presented. Results of research can be useful for any organization thinking about the transition from traditional rigid structure to a more modern reflexive organization with network communications.
The methods of calculating the particular and integral indicators of the applicability for the technological roadmap elements and their attributes. These indicators are applied to the automated tools for the foresight researches, the long-term scientific and technological forecasting, identifying innovative trajectories of the emerging domains evolution
Analytical justification of solutions using a decision support system (DSS) significantly increases the quality of decisions. The existing DSS generally employs 1 or 2 methods of decision-making. It does not always lead to the desired results, as each method is based on certain assumptions and is not universal. The maximum effect can be achieved only insofar a set of decision-making methods is included into the knowledge base of the DSS. The only system that meets these requirements is the Expert Decision Support System (EDSS) developed under supervision of the author. Currently the EDSS includes about 50 decision-making methods. The expansion of the EDSS knowledge base by including new methods will allow for choosing the most suitable method for solving each decision-making task. Enhancing the Decision Table model underlying the system knowledge base allows you to develop the EDSS without complete reworking of the system code. The system knowledge base contains decision rules built on the principle of “if... then...” (if certain conditions of decision making exist, then a definite method of decision-making should be employed). To expand the EDSS knowledge base, ELECTRE collection methods were selected. Their key feature consists in not using the convolution operation of evaluation of the alternatives specified in different scales on individual criteria. This was the reason for selecting the methods of this family. In the article, the algorithms of these methods are adapted for their inclusion in the EDSS. An algorithm for obtaining a criterion-alternative matrix is proposed. It serves as input information for the ELECTRE family methods in cases where there is no objective information for its formation. The results of the study can be used to develop the EDSS, allowing analytical justification of solutions using methods that have not previously been used in the system.
Enterprise architecture design is a complex process which makes it possible to synchronize the capabilities and needs of business and information technologies (IT). It can be achieved by clarifying the understanding and formalization of the business processes and the interaction of the elements of the system through their formal description. The large number of interacting business processes and enterprise architecture entities raises the question of verifying their correctness. Therefore, it is necessary to formalize the requirements for architecture and be able to automatically verify them. In this paper, we propose a method for detecting logical contradictions in enterprise architecture models based on a model checking approach adopted in the context of business modeling. As an enterprise architecture description language, we use the modern open and independent ArchiMate standard. Developed by The Open Group, the standard provides a general specification for business processes, organizational structures, information flows, IT-systems and the technical infrastructure description of the enterprise. As a verifier, the language and tools of the MIT Alloy Analyzer system were chosen; they facilitate analysis of model constraints in terms of relational logic by automatically generating structures that satisfy the requirements of a logical model. In this paper, we propose to simplify and automate the process of specification and verification of enterprise architecture domain models using Archi - the visual editor for ArchiMate models. We have developed the editor plug-in which translates the enterprise architecture models into the language of the MIT Alloy Analyzer system and uses the meta-model of the ArchiMate specification as the basis for constructing specific domain models. The proposed method and software solutions have been tested using the ArciSurance case and their enterprise architecture model. The research was carried out with financial support of Russian Fund of Basic Research No. 16-06-00184 A “Development and investigation models of online-discussion based on materials of political news”
Pattern analysis is a new area in data analysis related with the search for relationships between the objects, the construction of the objects classification and study of object’s changes over time. In the first part of the article the notion of ‘pattern’ is introduced, and a survey of methods of cluster analysis and pattern analysis is presented.
Developing variants of scenarios for a production enterprise’s achieving a desirable fi nancial position using simulation modeling tools requires a specifi cation and verifi cation of requirements for the simulation model. Availability of such variants of scenarios allows stakeholders to select the most effi cient solution. The verifi cation is performed by business analysts and key stakeholders; the aim is to assess readiness of the requirements for fi nal approval and to check that the requirements provide all material information for future work. Verifi cation includes evaluating the requirements regarding their compliance with the company’s business analysis standards, as well as assessment of the model’s completeness and common terminology used for description of the requirements. Understanding the desired solution, which meets all the stakeholders’ requirements, is the most important element in requirements verifi cation. For developing a simulation model, which is essential for determining variants of development scenarios and covers fi nancial fl ows of a typical production company, a list of verifi ed requirements is determined. Criteria of requirements verifi cation include not only acceptance criteria, but also the Graphical Requirements Analysis framework (GRA framework), that is used for verifi cation of functional requirements. The verifi ed requirements should be used at diff erent stages of constructing the simulation model, which is focused on development of scenarios for achieving the production enterprise’s desired future fi nancial position. Modeling scenarios of future development of the types “what will happen, if…?” and “what to do to achieve the goal?”, using simulation modeling systems allows one to dramatically increase the quality of decision making.
The purpose of this article is the analysis of leading European research in the field of knowledge visualization from the point of view of the accumulated theoretical base, practice of application, problems, and trends. The need for digital business transformation for survival in the era of high-speed, mobile intelligent applications and big data has become apparent. However, understanding and interpretation of information can be performed only by humans. Modern managers cope with information «explosion» through visualization. Visualization helps them to understand, to compress and to demonstrate the ocean of numbers, words, and ideas. The number of works devoted to the theme of visualization is growing every year. There are numerous studies on the visualization of networks and relationships, and visualization of communication with a consumer. Fewer articles have been devoted to the visualization of knowledge in the implementation of business practices. At the same time, scientists are examining one specific area of application of visualization and only a few contribute to the theory of the subject and study it in a versatile manner. The latter include the works of researchers from the University of St. Gallen (Switzerland), which we call in this article the St. Gallen School. We propose systematization of the following basic stages of research formation of the aforementioned School: 1) the preliminary stage, 2) the stage of empirical data accumulation, and 3) the stage of theory development. The School's contribution to the theory and practice of management was analyzed. Its contribution to theory includes the classification of visualization techniques, a description of visualization use in business, the development of the boundary objects theory, as well as a detailed description of experimental studies. Contribution to business practices means implementation of educational projects and the development of new visual models. The fragmented nature of research is identified: theoretical work is focused on how several visual models influence the implementation of certain business practices; empirical work often describes consulting projects, but do not provide an understanding of how to apply visualization techniques when there is no researcher-consultant. Based on our analysis of the literature, we demonstrate that the major trend in information processing is focus on knowledge representation based on data, not data as such. The challenging areas related to applied research methods are highlighted as follows: lack of consistency, and lack of distinction between the concepts of «data visualization» and - «knowledge visualization». Thus, there is a need to distinguish visualization of knowledge in a separate area of study.
The article contains the analysis of the impact of information and communication technologies as well as mobile technologies for the conduction of small and medium business in the emerging countries. Special approach is suggested for the development of the concept of business-processes management on small and medium enterprises.
This study presents the analysis of one of the major contemporary transformational forces – the Internet of Things (IoT), which significantly influences the future development of all spheres of life. The purpose of the research is to identify the potential economic effects of IoT implementation in different markets. To achieve this goal, the following tasks are consistently solved in the study: identification and classification of the main IoT applications markets; detection, assessment and analysis of the economic effects of the IoT in the selected segments within the proposed classification; formation of future directions of IoT development. Based on the combination of such methodological approaches as technology life cycle and technology adoption life cycle, perspectives of the IoT development are set out. The technology life cycle is viewed through the prism of the methodology of the research company Gartner (the Gartner Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies), based on establishing a consensus among a wide range of assessments of leading experts in the field of information and communication technologies. Comparison of the two methods and expert assessments allows us to conclude that, according to the methodology of technology adoption life cycle, the Internet of Things is of interest only for a group of “early adopters.”
The implementation of information system in big company with wide affiliated network in the country, as a rule, is connected with organization and technical difficulties. The process stretches out in time and not always leads to the intended effect.
This article considers the implementation of information system of industrial process automation and workflow of subscriptions for periodical printed publications in the Russian postal units FSUE «Russian Post». The condition of business-process automation before the implementation is estimated. The organization and technical problems that arise during implementing new information system are examined, such as continuity of the technological process, impossibility of start operation with «empty database», problems of personnel development, unification of business-process and a large quantity of implantable objects (more than 42 000). In conclusion the advantages which post operators can get from the implementation of unified information system are analyzed.
The article’s matters can be of interest to experts studying the implementation of information system.
The purpose of IT consulting is to provide recommendations pertaining to information system strategic management, IT architecture evaluation, design and development, enterprise business process automation project management and many other issues relating to the use of computers and information technologies. Success in this field depends predominantly on insight of factors, which realization enables to concentrate resources in those areas where a provider can get a significant edge over major rivals and gain the best position in a target market. However at present there is no universal, generally accepted tool to determine such factors.
This paper suggests an approach to determine corporate critical success factors for providers of IT consulting services and formulates relevant approached-based preparation and implementation recommendations.
We consider such sources of critical success factors as industry-specific characteristics of IT consulting, characteristics of general environment (economic, political, social and technological), timing factors, competitive strategy and position, specifics of IT consulting service provider’s management structure and specifics of IT consulting areas.
Based on analysis of these sources we suggest sets of success factors which constitute an underlying information basis for critical success factor selection procedure.
Activities to identify corporate critical success factors are suggested to be implemented in the project format. For each project phase basic tasks defined, and recommendations are articulated for implementation of relevant activities, as well as composition and content of project documentation.
These outputs may be used by providers of IT consulting services in the process of identification of corporate critical success factors, as well as by consulting firms involved in implementation of such projects.