We argue that electron-electron interactions fundamentally restrict the penetration length of Cooper pairs into a diffusive normal metal from a superconductor. At low temperatures, this Cooper pair dephasing length remains finite and does not diverge. We evaluate the subgap conductance of hybrids in the presence of electron-electron interactions and demonstrate that this length Lϕ can be directly extracted from conductance measurements in such structures.
Using the Kubo formalism we have calculated the local dynamic conductivity of a bulk, i.e., three-dimensional (3D), Dirac semimetal (BDS). We obtain that at frequencies lower than Fermi energy the metallic response in a BDS film manifests in the existence of surface-plasmon polaritons, but at higher frequencies the dielectric response is dominated and it occurs that a BDS film behaves as a dielectric waveguide. At this dielectric regime we predict the existence inside a BDS film of novel electromagnetic modes, a 3D analog of the transverse electric waves in graphene. We also find that the dielectric response manifests as the wide-angle passband in the mid-infrared (IR) transmission spectrum of light incident on a BDS film, which can be used for the interferenceless omnidirectional mid-IR filtering. The tuning of the Fermi level of the system allows us to switch between the metallic and the dielectric regimes and to change the frequency range of the predicted modes. This makes BDSs promising materials for photonics and plasmonics.
Spectra of magnetoplasma excitations have been investigated in two-dimensional electron systems in AlAs quantum wells (QWs) of different widths. The magnetoplasma spectrum has been found to change profoundly when the quantum well width becomes thinner than 5.5 nm, indicating a drastic change in the conduction electron energy spectrum. The transformation can be interpreted in terms of transition from the in-plane strongly anisotropic Xx−Xy valley occupation to the out-of-plane isotropic Xz valley in the QW plane. Strong enhancement of the cyclotron effective mass over the band value in narrow AlAs QWs is reported.
A method for finding dispersion in chains of plasmonic particles of arbitrary shape is proposed. Our approach is based on analytic continuation via polylogarithms and is basically a generalization of the method known for spherical nanoparticle chains. As an example, we consider an axial chain of split-ring resonators. Three distinct solutions are distinguished, namely, two plasmons and a nonexponential wave. Dispersion relations, decay profiles, and spectra of excitation by a point source are obtained and compared with that in a spherical nanoparticle chain. The nuances of implementing the method are discussed.
We construct a distribution function of the strain-tensor components induced by point defects in an elastically anisotropic continuum, which can be used to account quantitatively for many effects observed in different branches of condensed matter physics. Parameters of the derived six-dimensional generalized Lorentz distribution are expressed through the integrals computed over the array of strains. The distribution functions for the cubic diamond and elpasolite crystals and tetragonal crystals with the zircon and scheelite structures are presented. Our theoretical approach is supported by a successful modeling of specific line shapes of singlet-doublet transitions of the Tm3+ ions doped into ABO4 (A=Y, Lu; B=P, V) crystals with zircon structure, observed in high-resolution optical spectra. The values of the defect strengths of impurity Tm3+ ions in the oxygen surroundings, obtained as a result of this modeling, can be used in future studies of random strains in different rare-earth oxides.
Superconducting circuits provide a new platform for study of nonstationary cavity QED phenomena. An example of such a phenomenon is the dynamical Lamb effect, which is the parametric excitation of an atom due to nonadiabatic modulation of its Lamb shift. This effect was initially introduced for a natural atom in a varying cavity, while we suggest its realization in a superconducting qubit-cavity system with dynamically tunable coupling. In the present paper, we study the interplay between the dynamical Lamb effect and the energy dissipation, which is unavoidable in realistic systems. We find that despite naive expectations, this interplay can lead to unexpected dynamical regimes. One of the most striking results is that photon generation from vacuum can be strongly enhanced due to qubit relaxation, which opens another channel for such a process. We also show that dissipation in the cavity can increase the qubit excited-state population. Our results can be used for experimental observation and investigation of the dynamical Lamb effect and accompanying quantum effects.
A few years ago we predicted theoretically that in systems with nesting of the Fermi surface the spin-valley half-metal has lower energy than the spin density wave state. In this paper we suggest a possible way to distinguish these phases experimentally. We calculate the dynamical spin susceptibility tensor for both states in the framework of the Kubo formalism. Discussed phases have different numbers of bands: four bands in the spin-valley half-metal and only two bands in the spin density wave. Therefore, their susceptibilities, as functions of frequency, have different numbers of peaks. Besides, the spin-valley half-metal does not have rotational symmetry, thus, in general the off-diagonal components of the susceptibility tensor are nonzero. The spin density wave obeys robust rotational symmetry and off-diagonal components of the susceptibility tensor are zero. These characteristic features can be observed in experiments with inelastic neutron scattering.
We present a theoretical analysis of dynamic spin injection due to spin-dependent tunneling between a quantum well (QW) and a bound state split in spin projection due to an exchange interaction or external magnetic ﬁeld. We focus on the impact of Coulomb correlations at the bound state on spin polarization and sheet density kinetics of the charge carriers in the QW. The theoretical approach is based on kinetic equations for the electron occupation numbers taking into account high order correlation functions for the bound state electrons. It is shown that the on-site Coulomb repulsion leads to an enhanced dynamic spin polarization of the electrons in the QW and a delay in the carriers tunneling into the bound state. The interplay of these two effects leads to nontrivial dependence of the spin polarization degree, which can be probed experimentally using time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. It is demonstrated that the inﬂuence of the Coulomb interactions can be controlled by adjusting the relaxation rates. These ﬁndings open a new way of studying the Hubbard-like electron interactions experimentally.
Magnetoplasmons on graphene edges in quantizing magnetic fields are investigated at different Landau-level filling factors. To find the mode frequency, the optical conductivity tensor of disordered graphene in a magnetic field is calculated in the self-consistent Born approximation, and the nonlocal electromagnetic problem is solved using the Wiener-Hopf method. Magnetoplasmon dispersion relations, velocities, and attenuation lengths are studied numerically and analytically while taking into account the screening by metallic gate and the energy dissipation in graphene. The magnetoplasmon velocity decreases in the presence of nearby gates and oscillates as a function of the filling factor because of the dissipation-induced frequency suppression occurring when the Fermi level is located near the centers of Landau levels, in agreement with recent experiments.
We report on the observation of edge electric currents excited in bilayer graphene by terahertz laser radiation. We show that the current generation belongs to the class of second order in electric field phenomena and is controlled by the orientation of the THz electric field polarization plane. Additionally, applying a small magnetic field normal to the graphene plane leads to a phase shift in the polarization dependence. With increasing the magnetic field strength, the current starts to exhibit 1/B-magneto-oscillations with a period consistent with that of the Shubnikov–de Haas effect and amplitude by an order of magnitude larger as compared to the current at zero magnetic field measured under the same conditions. The microscopic theory developed shows that the current is formed in the edge's vicinity limited by the mean-free path of carriers and the screening length of the high-frequency electric field. The current originates from the alignment of the free carrier momenta and dynamic accumulation of charge at the edges, where the P-symmetry is naturally broken. The observed magneto-oscillations of the photocurrent are attributed to the formation of Landau levels.
We study the effect of random potentials created by different types of impurities on the transverse magnetoresistance of Weyl semimetals. We show that the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the magnetoresistance is strongly affected by the type of impurity potential.We analyze in detail two limiting cases: (i) the ultraquantum limit, when the applied magnetic field is so high that only the zeroth and first Landau levels contribute to the magnetotransport, and (ii) the semiclassical situation, for which a large number of Landau levels come into play. A formal diagrammatic approach allowed us to obtain expressions for the components of the electrical conductivity tensor in both limits. In contrast to the oversimplified case of the δ-correlated disorder, the long-range impurity potential (including that of Coulomb impurities) introduces an additional length scale, which changes the geometry and physics of the problem. We show that the magnetoresistance can deviate from the linear behavior as a function of magnetic field for a certain class of impurity potentials.
We have studied the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the photon and dark count rates of meander-type niobium nitride superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Measurements have been performed at a temperature of 4.2 K, and magnetic fields up to 250 mT have been applied perpendicularly to the meander plane. While photon count rates are field independent at weak applied fields, they show a strong dependence at fields starting from approximately ±25 mT. This behavior, as well as the magnetic field dependence of the dark count rates, is in good agreement with the recent theoretical model of vortex-assisted photon detection and spontaneous vortex crossing in narrow superconducting lines. However, the local reduction of the superconducting free energy due to photon absorption, which is the fitting parameter in the model, increases much slower with the photon energy than the model predicts. Furthermore, changes in the free-energy during photon counts and dark counts depend differently on the current that flows through the meander. This indicates that photon counts and dark counts occur in different parts of the meander.
We present an analytical and numerical investigation of the spectral and transport properties of a quadruple quantum-dot (QQD) structure which is one of the popular low-dimensional systems in the context of fundamental quantum physics study, future electronic applications, and quantum calculations. The density of states, occupation numbers, and conductance of the structure were analyzed using the nonequilibrium Green’s functions in the tight-binding approach and the equation-of-motion method. In particular the anisotropy of hopping integrals and on-site electron energies as well as the effects of the finite intra- and interdot Coulomb interactions were investigated. It was found out that the anisotropy of the kinetic processes in the system leads to the Fano-Feshbach asymmetrical peak. We demonstrated that the conductance of the QQD device has a wide insulating band with steep edges separating triple-peak structures if the intradot Coulomb interactions are taken into account. The interdot Coulomb correlations between the central QDs result in the broadening of this band and the occurrence of an additional band with low conductance due to the Fano antiresonances. It was shown that in this case the conductance of the anisotropic QQD device can be dramatically changed by tuning the anisotropy of on-site electron energies.
We study dc conductivity of a Weyl semimetal with uniaxial anisotropy (Fermi velocity ratio ξ=v⊥/v∥≠1) considering the scattering of charge carriers by a wide class of impurity potentials, both short- and long-range. We obtain the ratio of transverse and longitudinal (with respect to the anisotropy axis) conductivities as a function of both ξ and temperature. We find that the transverse and longitudinal conductivities exhibit different temperature dependence in the case of short-range disorder. For general long-range disorder, the temperature dependence (∼T4) of the conductivity turns out to be insensitive of the anisotropy in the limits of strong (ξ≫ and ≪1) and weak (ξ≈1) anisotropy.
We explore correlations of eigenstates around the many-body localization (MBL) transition in their dependence on the energy difference (frequency) ω and disorder W. In addition to the genuine many-body problem, XXZ spin chain in random field, we consider localization on random regular graphs that serves as a toy model of the MBL transition. Both models show a very similar behavior. On the localized side of the transition, the eigenstate correlation function β(ω) shows a power-law enhancement of correlations with lowering ω; the corresponding exponent depends on W. The correlation between adjacent-in-energy eigenstates exhibits a maximum at the transition point W_c, visualizing the drift of W_c with increasing system size towards its thermodynamic-limit value. The correlation function β(ω) is related, via Fourier transformation, to the Hilbert-space return probability. We discuss measurement of such (and related) eigenstate correlation functionson state-of-the-art quantum computers and simulators.
Strong dependence of the Josephson energy on the magnetization orientation in Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayers and spin-orbit coupling opens a way to control magnetization by Josephson current or Josephson phase. Here we investigate the perspectives of magnetization control in superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/F/S) Josephson junctions on the surface of a 3D topological insulator hosting Dirac quasiparticles. Due to the spin-momentum locking of these Dirac quasiparticles a strong dependence of the Josephson current-phase relation on the magnetization orientation is realized. It is demonstrated that this can lead to splitting of the ferromagnet's easy axis in the voltage driven regime. We show that such a splitting can lead to stabilization of an unconventional fourfold degenerate ferromagnetic state.
We consider a hybrid structure consisting of superconducting or normal leads with a combined ferromagnet–three-dimensional topological insulator interlayer. We compare responses of a Josephson junction and a normal junction to magnetic texture dynamics. In both cases the electromotive force resulting from the magnetization dynamics generates a voltage between the junction leads. For an open circuit this voltage is the same for normal and superconducting leads and allows for electrical detection of magnetization dynamics and a structure of a given magnetic texture. However, under the applied current the electrical response of the Josephson junction is essentially different due to the strong dependence of the critical Josephson current on the magnetization direction and can be used for experimental probing of this dependence. We propose a setup which is able to detect a defect motion and to provide detailed information about the structure of magnetic inhomogeneity. The discussed effect could be of interest for spintronics applications.