The article includes a Russian translation of the chapter devoted to Ahmad ibn Hanbal from Farid al-Din ʻAṭṭār’s Memorial of God’s Friends. Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855), celebrated Muslim theologian, jurist and traditionist, is a founder and eponym of Hanbali school. In this hagiography ʻAṭṭār presents him as an active proponent of the dogma of the eternal essence of the Quran — Ahmad ibn Hanbal preferred tortures and martyrdom rather than rejecting his beliefs.
The authors of this article have undertaken a critical analysis of basic methodological principles of urban digitalization studies. We argue the relevance of the “digital connection” concept since our field research confirms the discrete nature of mobile digital practices. At the same time, a generic anthropological approach brings a universal logic to discontinuous cases: the starting point of our speculations is the human being in a changing urban environment.