The article explores the effect of method on the eliciting values of adolescents. Most of the methods used in the field of values are based on the rating scale. It was questioned for sensitivity to social desirability especially taking into account positive nature of values. The author shows the advances and limitations of applying constant-sum scale for measuring values. The main advantage of the constant-sum scale refers to the possibility to increase differentiation of values in the group of students with low engagement in schooling.
The paper is devoted to the study of cultural and psychological factors of parent-child value similarity among ethnic minorities living in different cultural contexts. Representatives of two generations of 118 Russian families in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (KBR), where ethnic Russians are ethnic and religious minorities (distant cultural context) and of 109 Russian families in the Republic of North Ossetia - Alania (RSO-A), where Russians are ethnic minority and religious majority (close cultural context). The methods of the study include the Schwartz value questionnaire (PVQ-R), scales of ethnic and national identities from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies) project questionnaire and scales of perceived child-parent closeness, evaluated by children and parents. The results of path analysis in AMOS program showed that in the distant cultural context (KBR) ethno-national identity of Russian adolescents positively related to parent-child value similarity, whereas in the close cultural context (RSO) ethno-national identity of parents and perceived by children psychological closeness with their parents positively related to parent-child value similarity. In these two cultural contexts we also found that psychological closeness assessed by parents negatively related to parent-child value similarity.
Military intervention is a method of international conflict resolution. Previous research has revealed the main factors influencing attitudes toward specific wars. In this study we investigated factors which predict attitudes toward war in general. We hypothesized that general attitudes toward war are predicted by psychological hardiness. However, this link is mediated by alienation from self, relationships and society. Russian residents (N=1427) filled out the scales for psychological hardiness, alienation and attitudes toward war. Structural equation modeling confirmed the hypotheses. The results showed that low psychological hardiness predicted high alienation from self, in relationships and society. Alienation, in turn, was linked to general attitudes toward war. Higher alienation from self and in relationship was correlated with more positive attitudes toward war, but higher alienation from society was related to more negative ones. These results are discussed with reference to the content of social norms and representations.