PISA results show that math problems with everyday context are typically difficult for Russian students. Are these difficulties caused either by exactly everyday context or by lack of some general problem solving skills required when solving unusual contextual problems? In a qualitative study we analyzed mistakes of 8-10-graders (n=60) and showed that a minor part of their mistakes was due to requirements to make math model that are specific requirements of contextual problems. Vast majority of mistakes was due to general problem skills such as visual representation skills, monitoring of solving process, validating of decision.
The article is an attempt at a complex approach to the notion of tolerance from the angle of individual and social consciousness, personality, interpersonal interaction and macrosocial processes. In each of these aspects the author singles out operational indicators which allow appraisal of manifestations of tolerance/intolerance. On the basis of cultural historical non-classical psychology the author constructs a working model linking different aspects of tolerance.
The article explores the effect of method on the eliciting values of adolescents. Most of the methods used in the field of values are based on the rating scale. It was questioned for sensitivity to social desirability especially taking into account positive nature of values. The author shows the advances and limitations of applying constant-sum scale for measuring values. The main advantage of the constant-sum scale refers to the possibility to increase differentiation of values in the group of students with low engagement in schooling.