This article discusses results of experimental study of the factors which are engaged in ascription of the different motivations to the bystanders of cyberbullying. This process could be interpreted as one the possible mechanism which influences the moral disengagement. It was supposed that the process of motives ascription is affected by personal characteristics of the author of the communicative product (message) and psychological peculiarities of the member of the experiment. Personal factors were selected on the basis of behavioral studies of witness of cyberbullying. Situational factors were chosen also on the basis of the previous studies; in addition the author used attributional approach for the explanation of common sense. The hypotheses were tested in the factorial experiment. This experiment took place in the August of 2018 in groups of students on the Russian social network «Vkontakte». The between-subjects experimental design with 12 scenarios was used. 460 students participated. The results of the study show that the higher the level of narcissism of the person the more eager is he / she to attribute cyberbullying to the user of the social network. Participants of the experiment with high levels of machiavellism and psychopathy ascribe the same behavior to the trolling. Age and narcissism of the message author also were significantly connected with the process of motive attribution. The results of this study broaden the knowledge about the behavior of bystanders in the Russian segment of the Internet.
The article attempts to apply the Ibarra-Kitsuse constructionist model of rhetorical idioms, counterrhetorics, motifs and claims-making styles to the LiveJournal posts about police brutality in Russia. The analysis of the blog posts evoked by the death of detainee Sergei Nazarov after rape tortures in Dalny police station (city of Kazan) in March, 2012 reveals that Nazarov’s case is considered by bloggers in the context of violence by the Russian police as a whole, that police brutality is interpreted by the blogosphere as a wide-spread phenomenon and that Nazarov’s death was the catalyst for the mainstreaming of latent tension. The main rhetorical idioms used by bloggers are the rhetoric of endangerment (danger to citizens by the police), the rhetoric of entitlement (concerning ex-prisoners) and the rhetoric of calamity (concerning Vladimir Putin’s presidency).
The present paper reviews professional activity of economic journalists in Russia in unfavorable institutional environment. As a special professional group, both in terms of required skills and role in society, economic journalists often face a number of difficulties in the course of their career. This idea could be confirmed by real incidents (dismissal of the editorial staff of the leading Russian media) and international statistics. In 2016, Russia ranked 148th in the World Press Freedom Index. An integral part of the activity of journalists is professional regulation, which was reviewed on three levels - external, internal and individual, identified by A. Abbott. The functioning of such control in the professional activity of journalists is the general purpose of the study. The empirical research basis is 18 semi-structured interviews with "economic journalists" - employees of the "Economics" and "Finance" editorial departments of printed and Internet media from different federal districts of the Russian Federation. From the findings of the research, it can be concluded that the external level of regulation effectiveness is insufficient despite its total interference. Journalists' own values acquire importance in case of the moral choice that the professional community often encounters. As the external control does not always ensure proper regulation and individual norms of journalists are affected by external factors, the organizational culture of particular media companies becomes especially important. Media organizations regulate the work process of their employees by creating internal ethical codes and building an environment where journalists can communicate and exchange experience with each other.
Social researchers have different terms for distinguishing people who are involved in digital. We are naming them differently without any clear specifications — audience, users, participants, etc. Scientist and applied researchers usually use different terms while referring to the same target audience. The choice usually depends on the paradigm and theoretical framework of a particular research. However there seems to be a standard and clear definition for market research. In Russia Media Scope determine Internet users or monthly internet audience as people who had visited Internet at least once a month. Still the is at least one important question: what should be this single visit to the Internet? Should we consider only intended (conscious) visits or technical internet connections are also scored. Nowadays a discussion about terms we are using for identification of internet usage becomes more and more active. The goal of the article is to outline the main theoretical and methodological approaches to identify the internet audience.
Book “Corporate Reputation and the News Media: Agenda-Setting within Business News Coverage in Developed, Emerging, and Frontier Markets” edited by C. Carroll was published in 2012. This work is devoted to analysis of the impact of the discussion in the media on the image of companies and their fame. The authors parse the situation in 24 countries around the world. The review is expected to answer a series of questions related to the book. In particular, we focus on such aspects as "Why it was worth writing?", "What is the study design?" and "What conclusions about the situation in Russia do the author?" Despite the fact that description of the situation in Russia was not so successful as analysis for some other countries, the book may be really useful for researchers who works in area of mass communication studies, especially if they concentrate on agenda-setting theory. The book review concludes that this monograph is helpful for authors who just begin investigation in this sphere, because it provides a lot of example how such studies may be organized (sample of companies and publications, period of time, etc.).
The article explores a new phenomenon in Russian cities, the involvement of ‘creative’ urban youth in the process of beautification and transformation of urban space. This phenomenon is put in the broader international context. International sociology gets increasingly interested in the so-called ‘DIY-urbanism’, creative involvement of citizens in urban transformations; researchers report the incremental expansion of such practices in many big cities internationally. On the one hand, the self-made urban transformations are interpreted as a way of claiming the right to the city (the urbanites are thus challenging the dominant power dispositions and unequal rights to shape the urban space); on the other hand, it is seen as activity of ‘new bohemians’, gentry, trying to intrude the urban discourse. The present paper outlines the existing approaches to the analysis of creative urban transformations, and attempts to apply those to the contemporary processes in St. Petersburg. The main task of the article is elaborating an appropriate analytical framework and theoretical and methodological apparatus to reflect on urban creativity. On the example of artists making use of the urban space as an object of creativity I’m showing two diverse patterns and strategies of self-fulfillment in the city. The first pattern involves interpretation of the urban environment (streets, walls, back yards) as an exhibition space and material for artistic projects. The second pattern assumes using art as a means of transforming society. For the majority of our informants the networks appeared to be very significant, which allows us making an empirical argument in the debates on ‘networked creativity’ as a key component in non-material production.
Specificity of modern Russian labour and management culture can be regarded as one of the factors that constrain creativity and as a consequence innovativeness of Russian economy. At the same time native managers show conservatism and avoid application of western management practices as irrelevant Russian conditions. In that case it might be supposed that exactly in multinational teams progressive transformation of labour and management culture is taking place. The article aimed at investigating influence of labour culture on creativity in international workgroups in Russia. The paper is an attempt to reveal specific features of Russian labour culture which may encourage or restrain creativity. Furthermore it discloses possible positive changes of native labour culture influenced by foreign practices that stimulate creativity.
It has been learned that Russian professionals mainly uninvolved in working process. It means, that they don’t interested in the meaning and results of their work. Reflection about alternative means of goal achievement isn’t inherent in their way of working. Accordingly Russian professionals demonstrate lack of initiative and they have need of tight control of supervisor. An employee feels responsibility for formal adherence to instructions not for result. Russians don’t try to change or cancel decisions of the supervisor, even if that decisions is absurd or useless. Metaphorically Russian style of working may be called as “service” and distinguished from Western style. Result is important in Western style, but process is important in Russian. Denoted specificity of Russian professionals is a serious problem for foreign managers trying to rule them. Several respondents show some techniques that may help to stimulate Russians work creative. However nobody of them has achieved stable successful result.
This article analyzes the intergenerational social mobility of young political activists. The research based on the results of the questionnaire survey conducted in 2013 among the participants of the All-Russian Youth Forum "Seliger-2013» (N = 447). It was found that the social status of the respondent is determined by the social status of respondents family. The level of social mobility among young politicians is 14.6% higher than the average among the youth. Young people on average are more prone to inherit the social status of their parents than young politicians. The upward social mobility possibility is 12% higher than the average among the youth. The intensity of intergenerational upward social mobility among young politicians is 2.1 points. In the same time among young people the meaning of this indicator is on average - 1.7. The intensity of downward social mobility among young workers equals (1.9), whereas Youth middleweight equals (-2). Maximum social progress for young people in Russia is 5 steps above the level of social status of the family . Among the young politicians, the value is 7 steps. The maximum value (9 steps) was not found in either group. The results show that "there are no miracles," and although there are variety of social elevators present, it is very difficult to break out to the upper stratum of society, if one’s family belongs to the lowest rung of society. The significant factor in evaluation of intergenerational social mobility of young political activists is the parents' education. The conditions of parents’ socialization did not have a significant impact on the level of social mobility of young workers. Another significant factor in the horizontal intergenerational social mobility is father’s high education, but it has negative impact: it reduces the likelihood of horizontal displacements. At the same time, the mother's education does not play a significant role in the horizontal movements of young people.