The article is devoted to analysis of status of the Kazakh Khanate as it was reflected in the Russian diplomatic documents of the end of 16th — beginning of 18th centuries. Russian authorities tended towards consider the Khanate as vassal state and fixed it in entitling of Kazakh rulers, classification of their domains, imagination of their rights and obligations towards suzerain. Meanwhile the indepth study of diplomatic documents convinces us that in actual fact the Kazakh Khanate was not a vassal of Moscow and its rulers intended to develop equitable relations with Russian monarchs. Only forming of the Russian imperial ideology at the beginning of the 18th century resulted in substantial changes of the format of Russian-Kazakh relations.
The article deals with the phenomenon of monsters as a specific example of creating a kind of sense territoriality by means of historical and philosophical reflection. A particular type of political monster is specified. It argues that the political space has a historical character and undergoes a series of successive transformations. The deformation of space of political means that in the course of the next transformation was made a strategic error changes its meaning, leading to the emergence of the phenomenon of political monsters.
The article is dedicated to the study of political biography of Solomon T. Plaatje (1876–1932), a journalist and a great public figure in South Africa. His life and work were an example of the challenges that the first generation of African intellectuals faced in the end of XIX – first half of the XX centuries. Plaatje was noted for his sincere devotion to western values but also for his eagerness to keep his own people’s traditions. He was one of the pioneers of the resistance movement in South Africa and one of the founding members of the South African Native National Congress (future ANC). Assimilating the European culture, Plaatje at the same time strived for keeping own identity in which the race has played a certain part. It would be impossible to understand Plaatje’s activities and views without analysis of his historical background.
Over the centuries the Holy See has been greatly attracted by Orthodox Russia, and this attraction opens many avenues of research to historians of international relations. My essay focuses on Pope Pius XI’s policy towards Russia, with all its wealth of religious, historical and cultural implications. The essay first recapitulates the approach used towards Soviet Russia all through the Twenties by Papal diplomacy, with a view to establishing a concordat. Such a result would have satisfied the Vatican’s need to dialogue with secularist States, especially right-wing totalitarian and authoritarian ones, with their international recognition to be balanced by guarantees and rights granted to Catholics for the practice of their faith. The essay then devotes special attention to the reasons why, in 1929—1930, new Soviet legislation on religious practice and anti-religious propaganda, to be conducted by the League of Militant Atheists, induced the Holy See to break off diplomatic dialogue and inaugurate a decade of open and vigorous conflict with Soviet Communism, surprising the world
The article is devoted to the events of Norman conquest of Wales and Anglo-Welsh relationships in the period called «the first national consolidation».
Substantiated the hypothesis of the impossibility of constructing not Eurocentric global history based on the narrative logic of history writing. Revealed the possibilities and perspectives of the phenomenological concept of source study belonging to the neo-classical model of science in the development of approaches to the construction of global history. Analyzed the concept of “empirical reality of the historical world” as a theoretical basis for comparative source study and historiography source study, which make a strictly scientific way, the empirical basis to make a comparative study of different historical and historiographical cultures with the prospect of a new synthesis, different from the narrative logic of constructing global history.
This paper presents a quantitative study of spoken dialogue in Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace. Tolstoy was known to put a lot of emphasis on the language in which fictional characters express themselves, and conscious modification of their speech is acknowledged by critics as part of his literary technique. Our goal was to try and find some formal markers that would help us distinguish the characters, measure some sort of speech-based similarity between them, and cluster them into meaningful groups. At the first stage we applied some well- established approaches of stylometry (computational stylistics) that were originally developed for real-world authorship attribution and rely mainly on word and n-gram frequencies. Then we tried our own alternative method based on more formal and structure-oriented features independent of actual word choice. Both approaches produced meaningful and interpretable results, which indicate overall applicability of quantitative methods to literary studies in general and to the analysis of specific characters in particular. At the same time, the difference between the two sets of results helped us demonstrate that sometimes more formal and structure-oriented features could be more revealing and ‘noise-resistant’ than word and n-gram frequencies.
The paper want to reconstruct the genesis of the enclyctical Divini Redemptoris (19 th March 1937) against the Soviet Communism. This documentation permits to demonstrate that the publication of the encyclical was the point of arrival of a twofold evolution. The encyclical bears the personal imprint of Pope Pius XI.
Four centuries of tans-atlantic slave trade and more than one hundred years of the migration of Africans to the former metropolitan and other western countries formed a unique community – a large diaspora of the peoples of African origin. Among those who influenced the historical studies of African peoples most of all is the personality of William Edward B. Du Bois (1868–1963).We try to clarify in which way and when his understanding of Black History transferred from the history of Negroes to the history of African Peoples. The 15 years after the Manchester Pan-African congress show the best promise as Dr. Du Bois attached much importance and influenced greatly the development of African studies in the USSR. Through better understanding of newly independent states of Africa more and more historians realized the new character of Black History which became separated and from the late 50-th and on was developing as the history of Africans and Negroes, IOW — African-Americans.
The author of the article attempts at assessing the number of nobles (boyars) in pre-Mongol Rus’. He uses the data from non-narrative sources, first of all from the treaty of 944 between Rus’ und Byzamtium, and from those chronicle’s reports which indicate directly to numbers of boyars in certain local centers – these reports are coming back to the 13-14th centuries. He concludes that the ruling classes in the different polities on the territory of Rus’ during the 10-14th centuries (from the Dnieper Rus’ of the middle of the 10th century to independent princedoms-lands of the 12-14th centuries) consisted of no more than 20-30 persons. The number of the whole estate of boyars at the beginning of the 13th century was approx. 1500 persons (not numbering members of their families).
In his paper A. V. Voevodsky analyzes the Russian-South African interaction in the sphere of the higher education. The author considers historical background of relations of two countries in this area during the Soviet period. Untill 1990 th these contacts were developed mainly through two main forces of liberation movement in apartheid era — ANC and SACP. The interaction between the Republic of South Africa and Russia in the sphere of the higher education, as well as in other areas of economic and cultural cooperation has sharply weakened with the collapse of the USSR. The number of South African students in Russia has decreased practically to zero. The introduction in 2010 of the RSA in BRICS and the signing in 2013 of the Joint Declaration on the establishment of a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between the Russian Federation and the Republic of South Africa gave a new impulse to relationship between Russia and RSA. Nowadays, despite the remaining difficulties in coordination of educational policy of the two countries, we can acknowledge a revival of contacts in the sphere of the higher education with a number of bilateral agreements between the South African universities and the Russian educational and scientific organizations and a growth of number of the South African students trained at the Russian universities. In this article are reviewed possible steps of this cooperation further expansion. © https://history.jes.su/s207987840001442-5-1-en
The article addresses the question about the characteristics of everyday knowledge about the past and its features which appeared in the discussions on the online forum. To answer this question the paper explores, first, the kind of source which is provided by the chosen web forum, the type of communication which takes place there and its influence on the content of statements about the past made by users of the online forum. Second, the main part of this paperis devoted to the analysis of the online discussions’ contents and to the explication of the characteristics of popular knowledge of the past. In the conclusion, the article argues that the discussions about history include some common elements, which turn this kind of knowledge into the particular pattern of everyday knowledge.
The author analyses the text of the “Second Partida” fixed in the ms. 43-11 of the Toledo's Cathedral's Library. The manuscript was made by Juan Alfonso Trujillo, a subordinate of Toledo's archbishop Pedro de Luna, the nephew of the Anti-Pope Benedict XIII. The author affirms that the Archbishop was a direct customer of this manuscript and that he had a plans to make a gift to his vassal and younger friend, the dean of the Toledo Chapter, Juan Martinez de Contreras. The present should include all the Seven "Partidas," but an unexpected death of Pedro de Luna interrupted the work with the manuscript. Having as his goal to fix the place of the ms.43-11 within the frame of the manuscript tradition of the "Second Partida" and of all the "Seven Partidas" as a whole, the author analyses the problem of the existence of these manuscripts before and after the 1348 AD. This year the king of Castile Alphonse XI, being at the Cortes at Alcala-de-Henares, proclaimed the Partidas as one of the official sources of law of his kingdom and ordered to "collect and concord" all the evidence of this text for prepare its official version. The author concludes that one of the primary results of this order became an appearance of the many manuscripts which contained the text of two or three (or even more) Partidas at once. Until 1348 the Partidas usually existed as separate books. The analysis of the transcription of "Second Partida" fixed in the ms. 43-11 and also of its marginal notes allows fixing one more consequence of the king Alphonse's order. Until 1348 the text of Partidas suffered multiple changes and variations. In particular, there were three (as a minimum) major versions of the "Second Partida", that the author marks as a "versio primitiva", "versio primitiva-1" and "versio elaborata". The main difference between them was a distinct arrangement of the laws in the third part of the text, known as a "treaty on the war". The decision of Alphonse XI fixed the "versio elaborata" as an official text due to its readiness. However, the analysis of the manuscript 43-11 shows that the realization of this royal decision was a long and arduous process: a copyist that had written this text took before his eyes some manuscript with the "versio primitiva" and wanted to make its copy. However, the major scribe, who controlled his work, compelled him to change the text into the "versio elaborata" as an established by a royal will and, therefore, an official.
The article provides an overview of documents concerning Russiaб both political and diplomatic, contained in the Historical Archives in the 2nd Section (Section for Relations with Foreign States) of the Vatican State Secretariat (the former Archives of the Congregation for Extraordinary Church Affairs) — from the earliest documents dating back to the 17th century to documents of the late twentieth century. The Congregation for Extraordinary Church Affairs itself arose in 1814 and was aimed at restoring the relationship between the Church and the state in the field of civil law, education, jurisdiction and freedom of the Church, the management of dioceses, negotiations on the appointment of bishops, relations between the clergy and the authorities, not to mention plots, concerning spiritual, dogmatic, moral, disciplinary problems in various European countries. Particular emphasis is placed on documents relating to the period 1917—1939, which is explained, in particular, by the fact that for the period since 1939 the documentation in the Archives of the Vatican is not yet available. The author, however, draws attention to the papers of Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, which are kept in the Spolya Foundation in the Historical Archive of the State Secretariat and are now available to researchers.