Basing on a new self-compiled dataset the article reveals features of the distribution of the Moscow nobility’s property in the beginning of the 19th century. New archival sources, noble tax returns, allow to take into account all estates of a landowner throughout the whole Russia that was never done before because of lack of sources. The statistical analysis convincingly demonstrates that the share of Moscow nobility whose estates were located in more than one province was significant, what leads to three fundamentally important conclusions. Firstly, the number of poor nobility in Russia seems to be exaggerated, till now the property of an aristocrat in each province was treated as a separate property so small subordinate estates were analyzed as main estates therefore the number of “poor” nobility was growing, but only on paper. Secondly, the share of female property was not just significant, but amounted to almost 50 %, especially in the category of poor nobility. Thirdly, we cautiously assume that the number of nobility in Russia is overstated if we rely on the assessment of noble property in one province as an independent unit of analysis.
The article analyses the long political career and life of Mwai Kibaki, former President of Kenya.
The present article shows how medico-biological and medico-topographical descriptions of Russian cities and regions can be used as sources for social history of medicine in the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19th century. They bear evidence that graduates of the medical faculties of Imperial universities became experts in social and economic situation of various regions of the empire. Medico-topographical descriptions provide ample information on the number and structure of the population and its occupations, the city space organization, the sanitary and hygienic condition of dwellings, offices, hospitals and almshouses, the level of medical culture development of local population, the predominant diseases and their origin, and the distribution of popular medicine in different areas of Russia. The authors of these descriptions created new knowledge, and they can be used as a reliable source of information about the population in the Russian state.
The article is consecrated to the analysis of the geographical tables of the treatise “Chronicon” by Hugh of Saint-Victor (1096/97–1141), Paris master of the first half of the XIIth century. The study is based on the Paris. BnF. Ms. lat. 15009. The analyzed section of the treatise consists of five lists – regions of three parts of the world (Asia, Africa and Europe), mountains, rivers, islands and cities, presented in the form of tables. Despite the fact that geography rarely attracted the attention of medieval exegetes, Hugh of Saint-Victor found it necessary to include a section on geography in “Chronicon” which was in fact a kind of a handbook on the historical interpretation of the Scriptures. This interest in geography – quite unusual for a medieval exegete – can be explained by the peculiarity of Hugh’s concept of history. From the point of view of the Victorin, the study of the Bible start with mastering its historical interpretation, and therefore the future theologian has to be aware of the main historical events. According to Hugh, for a brief description of an event it is enough to indicate the name, date and place, that is. As a result, “Chronicon”’s geographical lists consist of the toponyms, The analysis shows that although Hugh uses such classic medieval sources of geographic data as “Etymologiae” by Isidore of Seville, and «Historiae Adversus Paganos» by Paulus Orosius, the structure of the “Chronicon”’s lists does not correspond to the models proposed in these texts. Moreover, not all the toponyms used in the “Chronicon” go back to these works of Isidore and Orosius or to the Scriptures as Hugh uses a large number of the contemporary toponyms. According to the proposed hypothesis, the organization according to the T-O map can explain the structure “Chronicon”’ list of regions. The list’s structure itself as far as some textual indications and the examples of using of this type of map in other works by Victorin says in favor of this version. To explain the use of contemporary toponyms, the article refers to an atypically broad understanding of biblical history characteristic for Hugh of Saint-Victor.
The article is devoted to analysis of status of the Kazakh Khanate as it was reflected in the Russian diplomatic documents of the end of 16th — beginning of 18th centuries. Russian authorities tended towards consider the Khanate as vassal state and fixed it in entitling of Kazakh rulers, classification of their domains, imagination of their rights and obligations towards suzerain. Meanwhile the indepth study of diplomatic documents convinces us that in actual fact the Kazakh Khanate was not a vassal of Moscow and its rulers intended to develop equitable relations with Russian monarchs. Only forming of the Russian imperial ideology at the beginning of the 18th century resulted in substantial changes of the format of Russian-Kazakh relations.
The article deals with the phenomenon of monsters as a specific example of creating a kind of sense territoriality by means of historical and philosophical reflection. A particular type of political monster is specified. It argues that the political space has a historical character and undergoes a series of successive transformations. The deformation of space of political means that in the course of the next transformation was made a strategic error changes its meaning, leading to the emergence of the phenomenon of political monsters.
The article is dedicated to the study of political biography of Solomon T. Plaatje (1876–1932), a journalist and a great public figure in South Africa. His life and work were an example of the challenges that the first generation of African intellectuals faced in the end of XIX – first half of the XX centuries. Plaatje was noted for his sincere devotion to western values but also for his eagerness to keep his own people’s traditions. He was one of the pioneers of the resistance movement in South Africa and one of the founding members of the South African Native National Congress (future ANC). Assimilating the European culture, Plaatje at the same time strived for keeping own identity in which the race has played a certain part. It would be impossible to understand Plaatje’s activities and views without analysis of his historical background.
Over the centuries the Holy See has been greatly attracted by Orthodox Russia, and this attraction opens many avenues of research to historians of international relations. My essay focuses on Pope Pius XI’s policy towards Russia, with all its wealth of religious, historical and cultural implications. The essay first recapitulates the approach used towards Soviet Russia all through the Twenties by Papal diplomacy, with a view to establishing a concordat. Such a result would have satisfied the Vatican’s need to dialogue with secularist States, especially right-wing totalitarian and authoritarian ones, with their international recognition to be balanced by guarantees and rights granted to Catholics for the practice of their faith. The essay then devotes special attention to the reasons why, in 1929—1930, new Soviet legislation on religious practice and anti-religious propaganda, to be conducted by the League of Militant Atheists, induced the Holy See to break off diplomatic dialogue and inaugurate a decade of open and vigorous conflict with Soviet Communism, surprising the world
The article is devoted to the events of Norman conquest of Wales and Anglo-Welsh relationships in the period called «the first national consolidation».
The Institute of History of the Communist Academy was founded at the time when a series of institutional changes inspired by the Revolution of 1917 was almost over. So the tragic fate of the institute could be explained by the fact that even at the moment of its «birth» it was not really needed what was proved later during the short period of its existence (1929-1936). On the contrary, the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR had more possibilities for studying both global and Russian history. Although the former members of the Communist Academy occupied the key posts at the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences, they could influence the choice of the research strategies in the field of history in a very limited way. That made the approaches used by the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences more universal and raised their scientific value.
Substantiated the hypothesis of the impossibility of constructing not Eurocentric global history based on the narrative logic of history writing. Revealed the possibilities and perspectives of the phenomenological concept of source study belonging to the neo-classical model of science in the development of approaches to the construction of global history. Analyzed the concept of “empirical reality of the historical world” as a theoretical basis for comparative source study and historiography source study, which make a strictly scientific way, the empirical basis to make a comparative study of different historical and historiographical cultures with the prospect of a new synthesis, different from the narrative logic of constructing global history.
This paper presents a quantitative study of spoken dialogue in Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace. Tolstoy was known to put a lot of emphasis on the language in which fictional characters express themselves, and conscious modification of their speech is acknowledged by critics as part of his literary technique. Our goal was to try and find some formal markers that would help us distinguish the characters, measure some sort of speech-based similarity between them, and cluster them into meaningful groups. At the first stage we applied some well- established approaches of stylometry (computational stylistics) that were originally developed for real-world authorship attribution and rely mainly on word and n-gram frequencies. Then we tried our own alternative method based on more formal and structure-oriented features independent of actual word choice. Both approaches produced meaningful and interpretable results, which indicate overall applicability of quantitative methods to literary studies in general and to the analysis of specific characters in particular. At the same time, the difference between the two sets of results helped us demonstrate that sometimes more formal and structure-oriented features could be more revealing and ‘noise-resistant’ than word and n-gram frequencies.
The paper want to reconstruct the genesis of the enclyctical Divini Redemptoris (19 th March 1937) against the Soviet Communism. This documentation permits to demonstrate that the publication of the encyclical was the point of arrival of a twofold evolution. The encyclical bears the personal imprint of Pope Pius XI.
Four centuries of tans-atlantic slave trade and more than one hundred years of the migration of Africans to the former metropolitan and other western countries formed a unique community – a large diaspora of the peoples of African origin. Among those who influenced the historical studies of African peoples most of all is the personality of William Edward B. Du Bois (1868–1963).We try to clarify in which way and when his understanding of Black History transferred from the history of Negroes to the history of African Peoples. The 15 years after the Manchester Pan-African congress show the best promise as Dr. Du Bois attached much importance and influenced greatly the development of African studies in the USSR. Through better understanding of newly independent states of Africa more and more historians realized the new character of Black History which became separated and from the late 50-th and on was developing as the history of Africans and Negroes, IOW — African-Americans.