The article deals with the problem of the habitual action and routinization of work. Based on the data collected during the study of the implementation of electronic health records in medical practices, the article shows that the widespread view of habitual action as an action in accordance with a preliminary scheme does not describe the actual structure of healthcare activities, a view that forms a basis for the majority of medical information systems. The analysis of how doctors perceive and use electronic health records in their daily practice shows that a situational approach to routine actions is more adequate. For example, the use of so-called “templates” that are created by doctors within the electronic health records system demonstrates the importance of a situational context of professional activities. Doctors, creating and using various “templates,” do this in such ways that allows them to make these health records circumstantially understandable. This work of producing a situational recognizability that does not consist in the use of pre-established schemes can and should be the subject of sociological analysis. The understanding of routine activities as situationally-oriented, concerted achievements not only proves the possibility of a new approach to the desсription of the habitual actions’ role and place in the structure of social action, but can be important for the design and evaluation of professional information systems.
Healthcare professionals’ workforce shortages and recruitment in rural and remote areas continues to be the challenge for all regions in Russia. The aim of the article is to evaluate "Zemsky Doctor" Federal program as well as to identify areas for improvement of current Federal, regional and municipal socio-economic programs and initiatives in order to overcome healthcare professionals’ workforce shortages. Measures of social support and economic incentives for physicians and medical nurses really helps to eliminate medical personnel deficit in rural and remote areas. The authors analyzed experiences of 20 regions with different security characteristics of the budgetary system. The study identified main perspective areas of improvement of regional, local programs and initiatives for healthcare professionals’ recruitment for rural and remote areas. Main perspective areas are target reception, co-financing of professional education and post-university training programs, additional scholarships and benefits, one-time "roll-up" and assistance in solving housing problems, assistance for obtaining postgraduate professional education, additional cash payments on a regular basis for rural physicians and medical nurses, cash prizes for winners of regional, municipal and local healthcare professional competitions, etc. The authors conclude that the administration of regional and municipal programs and initiatives in order to overcome healthcare professionals’ workforce shortages in rural and remote areas should be the separate area of personnel management policy in public health administration.
Today we see the great interest to the field of Software Ecosystems that have been related to products, community of developers around a product and gives the certain advantages to the platform owners and participants of the ecosystem. Mobile healthcare ecosystems – is a new trend, especially in Russia. Nonetheless many big companies see great potential in building the interface between healthcare and the mobile industry. The paper provides a step towards better understanding of background, examples and opportunities for further development of mobile healthcare ecosystems in Russia and all over the world.
The paper deals with the Soviet model and modern organisation of temporary disability examinations, which is one of the most common types of expert assessment within public administration in Russia. A comparative historical approach is used. Three aspects of these examinations are in focus: ideology or the dominant understanding of its tasks and the ‘mission’; the characteristics of the organisation and regulation of procedures; the practices behind these examinations. The key question is whether this institution, which was established in Soviet times, has undergone modifications given the dramatic changes in the state’s attitude to work and employment since the fall of the USSR. A comparative analysis of the regulations of the USSR and the Russian Federation is provided, as well as an analysis of the content of Soviet and contemporary educational literature for physicians. To determine how sick leave provision was organised in practice in the Soviet era, the archival documents of All-Union Central Soviet of Trade Unions over the period 1930–1980 (transcripts of meetings, reports on results of inspections etc.) were examined. Evaluation of modern practices of the examination is based on thirty-one semi-structured interviews with physicians and the representatives of medical centres management and monitoring bodies. Rather than operating as a means of social protection of the citizens, it makes more sense to view the Soviet-era institution of temporary disability examinations as a tool aiming at the rational distribution of labour resources for optimal use in the national economy. Medical providers could not cope with this task of examination and regarded its procedures and rules formally. However, these procedures and rules have influenced and continue to influence the organisation of professional medical practice and therapeutic process, defining routine interactions between medical institutions and patients.
We studied the expression of peroxiredoxin genes (PRDX1, PRDX2, PRDX3, and PRDX6) in human erythroleukemia K652, human breast carcinoma MCF-7, and human ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cells during cisplatin resistance development. It was found that drug resistance formation was accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of PRDX1, PRDX2, PRDX3, PRDX6 genes in all cancer cell strains, which confirms the important contribution of redox-dependent mechanisms into the development of cisplatin resistance of cancer cells.
Review of a monograph by G. Carlisle, D. Whitehouse, P. Duquenoy (eds.). E-Health: Legal, Ethical and Governance Challenges. Berlin: Springer, 2013. XIII, 396 pp.
The regional characteristics of the epidemic process and the incidence rates of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Arkhangelsk region have been examined in the paper. In the period 2005 -2015 the annual TBE incidence rates per 100 thousand population were from 2,0 to 5,4 times higher as compared to the corresponding averages reported for the whole population of the Russian Federation. The most possible causes of the increased incidence rates of tick-borne viral encephalitis in the Arkhangelsk region and temporal trends in its changes as well as potential risk factors of TBE extension have been stated. The vectors of viral encephalitis in the Arkhangelsk region are represented by two types of ixodic ticks: Ixodes persulcatus (the "taiga" tick) and Ixodes ricinus ("forest" tick), the Ixodes persulcatus constitutes over 99 % of their total number. Spring-summer season is typical for TBE cases occurrence which is associated with higher tick activity in this area. The average tick infection rate for the period was 7.8 %. The cases of TBE are reported to occur mainly in urban citizens; and lethality rate due to TBE reached 4.3%. Since 2010 decrease in the TBE morbidity has being observed in the Arkhangelsk region. Reducing morbidity can be connected to the increase in the proportion of vaccinated persons, which reached 6.3 % of the total population of the Arkhangelsk region. The main indices of the acaricide treatment volume which increased since 2005 nearly 6 times, from 128.2 to 740.0 hectares have been stated. Considering the fact that the area of acaricide treatment in the region increases every year, and the number of persons seeking medical advice concerning tick bites remains high it is necessary to control the effectiveness of acaricide treatment regularly. Core measures to decrease the tick-borne viral encephalitis conducted by the Regional Office of Federal Service for Consumers' Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing as well as ways for further research have been introduced.
The article presents results of systematic review of data on prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen. Data search was performed by PubMed database and Google search. 27 publications for analysis were available. Prophylactic efficacy of ibuprofen was studied in 14 studies. Summarizing of the results showed that ibuprofen prevents pain and decreases its following intensity after different surgical or dental operations. There is no significant difference in prophylactic efficacy of single dose ibuprofen and acetaminophen.Therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen was described in 13 studies. Administration of the drug for pain stopping in children is reasonable. The analgesic effect of ibuprofen compared to placebo was shown in all studies of patients with migraine and diseases of ENT-organs. 5 studies performed in last 5 years showed efficacy of ibuprofen in trauma patients, including children with non-complicated fractures of extremities.
The data on effectiveness of editing in medical journals is restricted. Objective: to study an effectiveness of editing in improvement of manuscripts quality containing results of original study, which were published in the journal «Current Pediatrics» (Russia). Design: single blinded randomized controlled study in parallel groups. Consecutive eligible papers were sent to reviewers (n=137) who were randomised into 2 groups (1:1) for evaluation of five author’s or edited (accepted for publication) manuscripts. Main outcome measures: item of importance, originality, methods, data presentation, discussions and conclusion quality score were evaluated. Results: 102 (74%) participants gave at least one conclusion, 64 (47%) performed an estimation of all presented materials. 412 conclusions (208 on author’s manuscripts and 204 on edited ones) were analyzed. An analysis showed equal estimation of importance, methods, discussions and conclusions in both author’s and edited manuscripts. Evaluation of data presentation quality was higher in edited materials: odds ratio (OR) for estimation 3 according 5-point scale was 4.1 (95% CI 2.0–8.4) times higher than in author’s manuscripts. Higher estimation of editing effectiveness was received from «strict» readers (mean estimations of manuscripts quality in lower quartile). They mentioned that editing improves quality of data presentation — for estimation 3 according to 5-point scale OR was 7.8 (95% CI 2.9–20.6), conclusions — OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.0–5.2), methods — OR 2.2 (0.9–5.3; p = 0.068), and makes common impression of edited manuscripts better as well. Conclusion: editing improves quality of data presentation and description of conclusions and methods («strict» readers only) in manuscripts of original study.