The paper analyses migration balance in urban districts and municipal areas of Russia in 2012-2014 from the perspective of migration balance impact on concentration and deconcentration of the population. We evaluate the general distribution of the municipal unities of this level across the country taking into account the population density characteristics and current ratio of sparsely and densely populated territories. The results of the analysis demonstrate that in nowadays Russia the concentration of the population is intensifying, thus contributing to the growing gap between densely populated cities and deserted territories of poorly inhabited zone. In contrast to many European countries as well as to the USA, where the processes of concentration and deconcentration of population have been replacing each other during the last several decades, Russia keeps the population concentration trend unchanged. The paper looks at two migration flows: 1) from intra-regional periphery to the center – the outflow intensifies as the distance from the center grows; 2) from municipal units with low population density to densely populated territories, primarily to big cities. We also evaluate the role of certain types of migration (intra-regional, interregional and international) in the process of concentration and deconcentration of the population.
The article is devoted to the migration processes of the Crimea in the last decades. Conducted census data analysis allowed us to track changes in migration processes Peninsula. For the Crimea is characterized by migration exchanges with the neighboring regions of Ukraine and Russia. Forced deportations during World War II caused further repatriation from Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Generally speaking, the role of migration in the formation of the region’s population over time is reduced, increasing the share of natives of the Crimea. This is possible a short burst of migration associated with the entry of the peninsula in Russia. However, offcial estimates of migration are posted on the websites of statistical offces of regions represented overestimated. Among the migrants is increasing the proportion of old-timers – who lives long enough in the place of introduction, and has the lowest probability of further migration.
During the past twenty years, imagology as a study of national images has become one of the fastest growing academic fi elds in the PRC. This paper presents a review of contemporary Chinese publications regarding the image of Russia. The author analyzes the articles on international image of Russian Federation as well as Chinese perceptions of our country.
This article presents the developed decision support system for the rational management of landscaping on the example of Yerevan, Republic of Armenia. Using agent-based modeling methods, a simulation model has been developed for the distribution of emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere, taking into account their interaction with green plantings (trees) in order to minimize the concentration of harmful emissions in protected (socially significant) areas, in particular, in kindergarten areas. An important element of the developed system is the proposed genetic algorithm for real coding, aggregated with a simulation model of emission propagation, implemented on the AnyLogic platform. As a result of numerical experiments, the best configuration of tree planting around kindergartens in Yerevan has been obtained, ensuring the minimum level of concentration of harmful substances in the respective protected areas, taking into account the restrictions on the cost of the greening program. The developed software complex allows for: further detailing of the emission distribution simulation model; modeling strategies for vertical gardening (i.e., landscaping walls and roofs); clarification of the methodology for predicting the dynamics of the spread of harmful emissions; development of the software complex as a decision support system for environmental planning, taking into account the density of residents distribution, and remoteness of urban buildings from industrial enterprises and traffic flows (roads) in the formation of an optimal greening strategy.
Experimental data on differences in visual perception speed of a human and some animals are presented. Examples of alternation of subjective time under drugs, stress, and intended training are considered. Explanation of such alternation is given on the basis of F. Varela's conception of perceptive fram.
The article presents an analysis of the demographic losses from the main causes of death in Russia, in the Republic of Bashkortostan and in OECD countries. Based on analysis of the numbers of deaths and potential years of life lost (PYLL), there was shown the position of external factors in the structure of total mortality in these regions. Although the number of deaths from external causes in both sexes before age 70 was on the 2nd place in 1992-2012 and in all ages one became on the 3rd place since 2006, in terms of PYLL premature loss from these causes had become the biggest threat to public health at least since 1990. There were specified peculiarities of calculation of the PYLL according to the methodology of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The basic conditions of the reduction of mortality from external causes are considered: the formation of vital behaviors among the population, creating a safe environment, an increase in expenditure on health care. Because almost all of the external causes of death are preventable, preventive measures play a major role in the limiting of risk factors, so Russian health system approach should be aimed not only on treatment but first of all on prevention. In addition, there were shown the analytical capabilities of the Haddon Matrix in the classification of the main factors of risk of death from external causes on the example of the suicide.
This is a review of the last book by influential cultural geographers A.Amin and N.Thrift dedicated to the contemporary urban theory and its perspectives.
Classical, selectionist (adaptationist) evolutionary epistemology of science draws an analogy between development of science and natural selection. But natural selection immediately increases only the relative fitness of organisms with regard to specific and changing environment. Therefore evolutionary epistemology of science is exploited (by van Fraassen in particular) against scientific realism which presumes existence of absolute scientific progress as an approach to truth. In modern biology in order to explain absolute evolutionary progress nonadaptationist, nonselectionist models based on a passive trend mechanism (a random walk limited by walls) were worked out, the ratchet model in particular. This paper suggests nonadaptationist extension of evolutionary epistemology of science, namely the ratchet model of scientific progress and illustrates it by history of thermodynamics. This model enables to combine realistic concept of scientific progress as an approach to truth with antirealistic concept of scientific development as an improvement of problem-solving ability: the former is ascribed to scientific dynamics on a global scale and the latter on a local.
Tris(1-alkylindol-3-yl)methanes were obtained and oxidized into tris(1-alkylindol-3-yl)methylium salts. The resulting salts are more toxic to cultured tumor cells than to non-tumor ones. The cytotoxicity of tris(1-alkylindol-3-yl)methylium salts depends on the length of the substituent at the N atom of the heterocycle, increasing from an N-unsubstituted derivative toward N-butyl- and N-pentyl derivatives. A further increase in the length of the N-alkyl substituent lowers the cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of tris(1-alkylindol-3-yl)methylium salts for tumor cells correlates with their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Tris(1-alkylindol-3-yl)methylium salts produced a cytocide effect on Gram-positive microorganisms and the most active compounds, on Gram-negative microorganisms as well. Similar patterns of the structure-activity relationship of N-alkylated tris(indol-3-yl)methylium derivatives, which was observed for various lines of tumor cells, bacteria, and fungi, suggest the general character of the mechanisms of the death of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells induced by these compounds.
In General, for 2016 г. in most Russian regions, real wages had ceased to fall, but the decline in real incomes of the population continued. Social stability is the most important priority for the authorities of the regions, and therefore the costs of social policy have grown over the past two years. Expenditure on human capital development (education, health) are optimized. The decline in the number of births in Russia is accelerated over the next several years, this trend strengthens from small generations of potential mothers. According to the preliminary results of the past year, the number of births in 2016, has exceeded the number of deaths, but in January, 2017. demographic dynamics has changed to negative. Migrational increase Russia’s population in 2016, generally kept at the level of the past years. The number of foreign nationals residing on the territory of Russia, continued to decline. The number of labour migrants in the beginning 2017, declined. The extent of internal migration, as well as its direction.
In the first seven months of 2017, the natural decline in the population of the Russian Federation amounted to 114,400 people. As the present generation of potential mothers is not large, the number of newborns has greatly decreased. The mortality rate is slowly declining. Migration growth has greatly decreased and for the first time since 2010 failed to make up for the natural decline in the population in H1 2017. The dynamics of regional budget social expenditures changed. Expenditures on education and healthcare with a transfer of insurance payments for non-working people taken into account kept growing steadily. Social security expenditures grew slower, while social payments in terms of benefits did not virtually increase; at the same time nearly half of regions started to optimize them.