The article aims to present experimental protocol for investigation of visual cognitive function in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Description of experimental design is introduced by theoretical review of visual attention, perception and visual-motor control development in children with idiopathic autism and those with Fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Research method presented in the article is based on recent studies of visual cognitive function development under normal and pathological condition. The protocol includes three experimental paradigms: “antisaccade test”, “big/ figures”, and “photos test” performed by making use of eye tracking recording. This work was supported by grant RFBR 14-06-31284
The paper uses data from two national household surveys conducted in 2011 and 2014 by Levado Center and compares changes in levels of out-of-pocket drug expenditures in different social groups. The study demonstrates that reinforcement of price regulation policy was not accompanied by improvement in drug availability. After economic crisis individuals with low incomes were less likely to buy pharmaceuticals; disabled decreased their average monthly spending on medicine. For majority of respondents the share of drug expenditures as percent of their per capita income has increased.
The paper uses econometric tools (two-part model, Tobit model, Heckman model) to evaluate factors associated with consumer choice on the Russian pharmaceutical market. Using data from national public opinion survey conducted in 2014 by Levada Center we show that gender, health, retirement and single mother’s status are strongly associated with high expenditures on medicine. Incomes are positively associated with probability of spending on medicine, but marginal effect of incomes is small.
The article analyzes the main changes in health care over the past five years, using an institutional approach (Richard Scott). The survey based on in-depth interviews with physicians, focus groups with patients in three types of cities in Russia (large, medium and small), as well as data on the mass survey of physicians and the public.
Summing up the consideration of the positions of key system participants it can be concluded that there is a clear imbalance of resources, obligations and responsibilities, in particular, to medical institutions and healthcare providers. Ongoing transformation of institutional rules in 2012-2016 was mainly motivated by economic logic, which does not coincide with the logic of consumers (patients) and professional institutional logic (doctors). Imperfection of the state healthcare system is compensated by doctors who give priority to professional standards moving away from formal rules encouraged by the current system. Reproduction of «old» norms applies only to the most qualified specialists; young professionals are more susceptible to following formalist approach
The article deals with determining the zones where it would be reasonable to use robotic-surgical systems (complexes) in conducting abdominal operations (liver surgery). It is not only the economic interests of a clinic, but the safety and the health of a patient that are regarded as criteria for optimality, as well as convenience and fatigability level of medical personnel. The article is based of the content analysis (CA) of the publications relating to the description of respective medical cases.
Worksite wellness programs have become very popular in developed countries. They produce benefits to employees, employers and the whole society by providing ways to change behaviors associated with risk factors (such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, physical inactivity, stress etc.). Workplace wellness programs are viewed as investment in human capital. That’s why in many countries worksite wellness programs are supported by federal and regional authorities. While Russian government understands the importance of healthy lifestyle, employees- sponsored health programs have not seen any significant support by now. The article therefore describes the benefits associated with worksite wellness programs; examines the ways authorities promote such programs in developed countries (e.g. tax allowances, grants, special initiatives to help small and medium enterprises, national health programs, pilot projects, and a wide range of measures aimed at providing enterprises with information about best practice examples). After studying evidence from developed countries we discuss what health policy initiatives could be taken in Russia in order to promote worksite wellness programs
High cost of robotized complex and expendables is significant difficulty for its acquisition and introduction of robot-assisted operations. Critical estimation of economic aspect is necessary for further development of robot-assisted surgery in our country. Because of robotic variant is alternative to laparoscopic technique we assessed the prime cost of robot-assisted and laparoscopic operations. The results may be used to assess recovery of expenses by state for high-technology care in clinic and to increase volumes of high-technology care using robotic techniques.
The article addresses the understudied phenomenon of digital quantification of the body and everyday life, which has arisen due to the spreading of wearable and mobile fitness technologies. The author reviews a number of recent studies which have contributed significantly to the conceptualization of digital self-tracking. Examining various approaches and directions in the study of self-tracking the author focuses on three aspects: a) on the manifestations and discourses of self-tracking; b) on its styles and practices; and c) on its social contexts and effects. The works under review show how trackers of physical and social activities can transform people’s everyday practices and how users interact with fitness technologies, interpret quantified data and construct their own embodied identity. Importantly, the efficiency of self-tracking tools is associated with their “sociability” and “intelligence” — the qualities achieved through anthropomorphization of digital devices and creating a culture of sharing. It is also underscored that the practice of self-tracking goes beyond individual experience, actively invading other social worlds, and may eventually become an inherent feature of a “sensor society”. Summarizing the outcomes of current research, the author comes to a conclusion that further conceptualization of digital self-tracking must take into account its complex and multi-vector nature. On the one hand, self-tracking is productive, as it contributes to broadening the possibilities for self-knowledge and self-management, on the other hand, it can have disciplining, discriminating, coercive and alienating effects.