The medium-term forecasting of the sea ice extent has been carried out by determining of the relationship between incoming solar radiation and the sea ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Different methods of the statistic and neural modeling have been used. Forecast shows that the main factor determining the variation of the maximum and minimum sea ice extent in the medium-term scale is the variability of solar radiation arrived at the top of the atmosphere. Evaluation of the medium-term forecasts of the sea ice extent demonstrates the effectiveness of using the averaged results of the regression analysis and neural network modeling.
The main directions of scientific research related to solving the problem of creating conditions in which all kinds of production and consumption wastes can be used as a commodity end products or as semi-finished products for the production of capital goods and consumer goods.
The broadband electrostatic turbulence generally observed in the high-latitude ionosphere is a superposition of nonlocal waves of ion-acoustic and ion-cyclotron types. In the presence of a shear of ion parallel velocity, ion-acoustic modes can be induced by an instability emerging due to an inhomogeneous distribution of energy density. This paper is devoted to the studies of excitation of oblique ion-acoustic wave in background configurations with inhomogeneous profiles of both electric field and ion parallel velocity. A numerical algorithm has been developed, and instability was simulated at various parameters of background plasma. The general possibility of oblique ion-acoustic wave generation by a gradient of ion parallel velocity is shown. In this case, the wave spectrum is found to be broadband, which agrees with satellite observations.
The article examines the main features of obligatory certification national systems in the transitional period of national technical regulations enactment in Russia and Customs Union of Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC).
The article examines the lessons of physical training with military female with regard to their morphological and functional, psycho-physiological characteristics. Discusses controversial issues in the thematic changes in the disciplines of the department plans to overcome obstacles, melee and mountain training.
We evaluate statistical connection between intensity of atmospheric fronts on various baric levels, time of the fronts' passage, and the relative humidity with the probability of precipitation and its intensity.
The article deals with the toponyms occurring in the Aramaic and Arabic texts of the Late Sassanian and Early Moslem period concerning the biography of the prominent Eastern Syrian mystical writer Isaac of Nineveh. Two particular cases are analysed. Firstly, it is reported by Ishodnah and other writers that Isaac left Qatar in the mid-7th century and became bishop «of Nineveh», whence his cognomen Ninwāyā. The history of Nineveh and its mythological reception are traced to the 7th c. BC. Due to the never forgotten glory of Assyrian past, any new centre which ever re-emerged at Kuyunjik or Nabi-Yunus hills (which had been parts of Assyrian Nineveh) and even the pre-Mosul settlement on the opposite bank of the Tigris (once called Nav-Ardashir) received the name of «Nineveh» and were thought to be the same Assyrian Nineveh. It was this western pre-Mosul settlement that is really implied by «Nineveh» of Isaac. The population lived on the western bank of the Tigris in Nav-Ardashir, while the historical city of Nineveh had been abandoned. Bishops of Nineveh resided in the monastery of Beth Abe (in the Forests). It can be concluded that the term Ninwaya in the episcopal title of the Church of the East was a mere convention. Secondly, the toponym Matut is brought under analysis. After leaving Beth Nuhadra Isaac moved northwards to Susiana (Beth Huzaye), where he spent some time in the monastery of Rabban Shapuhr before moving to the mountain cave where he spent the rest of his hermitic life. The name of the mountain in Aramaic sounds Matut and it is said that Matut encircled Susiane which makes «Matut Mt.» to be a rather vast segment of Zagros. It is impossible to explain the horonym quite reliably, but it can be hypothetically interpreted as a late form of Ancient Mesopotamian GN Mat-Utem (a part of Zagros region at upper Lesser Zab was called that as early as the 2nd mill. BC), used in extended sense.
No tree-ring chronologies were reported so far in the International Tree Ring Data Bank for the central part of the East-European Plain. This absence is traditionally explained by the lack of motivation for tree-ring research in this area. Indeed, due to the intense anthropogenic press the old trees are rare in this region and the climatic signal embedded in the ring width is not strong and is always complex. In this study we present the new tree-ring network of 9 ring width chronologies of pine (Pinus sylvestris) up to 297 years long in a large region of about 450 km in diameter in the Central Russia (54–57N, 33–40E) and analyze their climatic response. Tree ring growth in the region is controlled by both temperature and precipitation of vegetation period, and all the analyzed chronologies have significant correlation with summer PDSI values (with coefficients up to r≤0.4). All of them were sampled after the year 2010 when a severe summer drought spread over the European part of Russia. This allowed spatial analysis of 2010 year annual ring (and rings related to the years of other known severe droughts of 20th century) in the context of drought impact on tree growth. This study is a starting point for constructing large tree ring network for further investigation of severity and spatial distribution of droughts in European Russia in the past.
Bones of 17 species of hunting mammals, found on the course of long-term excavations in the medieval layer of Novgorod the Great, are analyzed. Hunting mammals are sorted into two groups - meat and fur animals (with intermediate forms) - according to the way they have been utilized and selection of bones, found in the city, its neighborhood and settlements of Novgorod Land. The future possibility to discover the complete skeletons of mustelids (stoat, mink, weasel), which have died of natural causes in the city boundaries, is noted.
Contemporary challenges and threats to sustainable development including safe use of transboundary resources of rivers and Arctic seas in condition of climate change are connected with cumulative impact of numerous factors. Ongoing environmental changes have transboundary nature and will have significant impact in international scale. In case of overlapping of factors of impact their nature and synergetic effect, mechanisms of their interrelated influence and possible negative consequences for global economy, environment and human health are not adequately known. Among the main obstacles to mitigation of climate change impact on the state of big river basins in the Arctic and Arctic seas are: the lack of critically important information and data, absence of modern concepts of climate change mitigation measures connected with impact on Arctic seas, uncoordinated and inefficient regulation and management, absence of unified interstate tools of marine spatial planning. The article contains the analysis of risks and global consequences of the ongoing climate change for water resources; characteristic of priority issues and their underlying root causes. It also contains the results of the analysis of risks connected with melting of permafrost and increase in thermal coast erosion, assessment of the role of transboundary cooperation of water issues for sustainable regional development. The authors also propose some measures for addressing the above issues based on the Strategic Programme of Actions on the Protection of the Russian Part of the Arctic developed by the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia.
It has been suggested that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) reflects the genetic quality of different populations, which is particularly informative in harsh environment, poor health and social security. The Hadza are huntergatherers and Datoga are pastoralists from Northern Tanzania. Both societies are currently living in extreme environmental conditions, with expressed climatic seasonality and abundance of various infectious and parasites diseases. The Datoga are cattle breeders and thus might have more stable food resources. The aim of the present study was to determine possible differences between Hadza and Datoga by fluctuating asymmetry rate, masculinity and 2D:4D ratio and the test for correlations between FA, general masculinity and 2D:4D ratio. The coefficient of fluctuating asymmetry and the rate of sexual dimorphism were measured on photos of adults ranged from 14 to 70 years (198 Hadza, 64 Datoga). FA traits were calculated by taking left and right deviation from the midline, calculated from inter-pupillary distance, for six facial bilateral points and then summing the absolute values of individual scores, and sexual dimorphism was measured by measuring distance between specific points, producing four ratios: Cheekbone Prominence, Jaw Height/ Lower Face Height, Lower Face Height/Face Height, and Face Width/Lower Face Height. All images were normalized on inter-pupillary distance.
Post-conflict interactions between victims and non-involved group members was investigated in the troop of hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas. Observations were done in the Russian Primate Center, Adler in 1996—1997. Redirected aggression, initiation of affiliation from the side of victims towards third parties and consolation were registered during this study. The analyses was done on 445 PC-MC pairs of animals, represented different social classes (harem male-female pairs, harem females, relations, females from different harems, male-male pairs, female-subadult pairs). The attracted-pairs method and the time-rule method were used. Redirected aggression was practiced mainly by male aggressees. It was typical for victims, both males and females, to initiate affiliative interactions with third parties soon after the conflict. Consolation was practiced by hamadryas baboons, but it was limited to harem male-female pairs only. Special affiliative patterns were used by male-consoler. This is the first case, when consolation was demonstrated in baboons
The author emphasizes the necessity for shaping the Russian ecological lobby consisting of those industries which are the most interested ones in creating a favourable ecological situation