The goal of the study is to assess the mechanisms of transformation of Moscow agglomeration under the inluence of residential housing construction at different spatial levels. Methodological basis of the study is the database on individual housing construction projects of Moscow agglomeration, formed by the authors, as well as the proposed typology of housing projects. Compared to traditional analysis at the municipal level, this technique takes into account spatial differentiation of the housing market. The typology of housing projects is carried out on three main parameters: the size class of projects, the location of the existing building, the cost of housing. Theoretically, the study is based on a concentric model of Moscow agglomeration with the binding of the boundaries of the zones to the actual barriers in the housing market, which helps identify six zones. The scientific novelty of the work consists in determining the ratio of intensive and extensive ways of agglomeration development not only at the macro level (in terms of the balance between the commissioning of housing within and outside the Moscow ring road and agglomeration belts), but also at the micro level (in terms of location of projects in relation to existing buildings). In 2015–2017, extensive development of Moscow agglomeration at the macro level (construction of the Moscow ring road) accounted for 80% of housing construction, at the micro level (construction of free territories) – 50%. The practical significance of the study consists in the fact that it allocates the zone between the Moscow ring road and the Moscow smaller ring, where 70% of the supply of the primary housing market of Moscow agglomeration is concentrated. The extensive way of development – predominance of large projects of low-cost housing on free land – turns this zone into the main “territory of entry” of migrants to Moscow agglomeration. By regulating the intensity of housing construction in this key area, it is possible to manage trends in the development of the national settlement system, and through it – trends in the development of regional economies.
Russian and foreign studies have established that people with a migration experience easier change their place of residence again, compared with those who never did not. The migrants divided into two main groups - new settlers and old residents, who have lived in the site of invasion for a long time and an intermediate group from newcomers to old-timers. The regions where the settlers adapt best are Moscow, St. Petersburg. In most regions of the Far East and Siberia (except Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs) large number of migrants compensated by the large number of who left.
Drawing from the data on the home buyers’ addresses, we estimate the purchasing activity of Russians in the primary real estate market of Moscow metropolitan area (MMA) and compare it to their labor migration activity. The objects of analysis are 149 cities and 80 «rests of regions». This article is the first ever to examine the peculiarities of migration and investment behavior with differentiation between cities and rural areas, between size classes of settlements and individual large cities. Thus, the paper makes it possible to fill a gap in assessing the mobility of the factors of production, namely capital and labor. We reveal a sharp contrast between settlements of different sizes in terms of how they interact with the metropolitan agglomeration. The bigger the settlement, the less is the intensity of labor migration to the capital; the intensity is decreasing in a rapid and monotonous manner. The activity of foreign buyers depending on the population of the city where they reside varies non-mono tonously, with a maximum for cities with a population of 250-500 thousand people in the real estate market of Moscow and 100–500 thousand people in Moscow Oblast. For MMA, small towns and rural areas (except for Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Areas) are a source of labor resources while their buying activity in the real estate market is weak. Cities with a population of over one million practically do not create an inflow of labor migrants and show moderate activity in the Moscow real estate market. Moscow Oblast interacts through labor migration and housing acquisitions with smaller settlements than the «premium» real estate and labor markets of Moscow. The attraction of Moscow Oblast is rapidly decreasing with distance, extending to the first- and second-order neighbors, while Moscow’s influence spreads throughout the country.
The article is devoted to the development of Russian migration over the past century. The author has made an attempt to trace the temporal and spatial changes of migration processes on the example of the two regions by the census data analyzing. The development of the Yenisei province was part of the Siberia colonization process, and then the region had taken an active part in the "Western drift", and natives of the Ryazan province always had a great influence on the formation of the Moscow population. These migrations are one of the largest in the history of the country.
In this paper one analyzed the intensity and age characteristics of migration in recent years, using the data at the level of municipalities and municipal districts of Moscow and Moscow region. Particular concern is paid to the migration from Moscow to the Moscow region. Calculations show that Moscow region, located in the zone closest to the Ring of cities and regions, feel the most intense influx of migrants. At the same time there were not discovered distinct age characteristics of migration in the areas that were near and far from the Moscow region.
On the basis of data for the 1989—2002 and 2003—2010 years, the migration of young people at the level of cities and areas of 19 Russian regions is analyzed. Migration is estimated by the “age-group shift” for the corresponding periods between censuses which provides more accurate estimates in comparison with the data of current statistics. Migration of young people has an expressed centripetal nature everywhere; their migration rate from the province is higher the farther one goes from regional centers. All regional capitals attracted young people in the period under review which has a positive effect on the age structure of their population, and only large cities could retain young people among their population. Migration of young people from the periphery is sustainable; it depends on the common migration attractiveness of regions and reaches the greatest extent in the East and in the depressed areas of the Center. In small and medium-sized cities on the periphery of regions, the outflow of young people almost always reaches the same intensity as in the countryside.
The main trends of rural migration, the spatial distribution of labor resources in rural areas and the change in agricultural employment associated with its post-Soviet transformation are analyzed. Five types of regions and their subtypes are identified which have different prospects for agriculture development and its labor resources. The relationship between rural labor resources and informal («shadow») employment, including seasonal and other temporal work in cities, is discussed. Despite the fact that spatial variations of agriculture stem from both natural, institutional and economic conditions and the accumulated consequences of rural depopulation, the actual population drain has no direct linkage with the agriculture wellbeing. Key factors are described due to which even positive trends and sustained growth of agricultural production do not in fact reduce human incentives to move from the countryside to cities, both for permanent residence and in search of temporary work.
The article deals with the modern features of the world economy.
The author pays attention to problems of technogenic accidents which occur during sea extraction and transportation of hydrocarbons. Those accidents threaten security of many countries and can cause irreparable damage to all ecological system of the Earth. In fact, in world legal practice there is no uniform legislation which could regulate the oil pollution problems resulting from industrial activity. The author believes that it's absolutely necessary to develop the so called Sea Constitution - the law fixing the most important norms of protection of «health» of the World Ocean.
In article the concept of a special economic zone (OEZ), key principles of its organization, specifics of the OEZ organization for tourism development are considered, the analysis of world experience of creation and functioning of tourist and recreational OEZ in Panama, China and on Philippines is given.
A brief review of recent studies of internal waves in the Baltic Sea is given. The data of various observations of internal waves in the Baltic region are discussed and a database for the background hydrological parameters that govern the basic appearance of the internal wave shape is introduced. These data sets are employed to select examples of pathways of wave propagation that contain critical points. Numerical modeling of propagation of internal solitary waves across the sea is carried out using the relatively simple model based on Gardner’s equation. This model was chosen due to its clear advantages. It is robust, allows high-resolution calculations with modest computer resources, and is able to reproduce the transformation of internal waves in horizontally inhomogeneous sea. The results of calculations of the transformation of internal solitons in the Baltic Sea along such pathways in a realistic (spatially variable) set of hydrological conditions are presented.
The paper considers the possibility of organizing the spatial patterns of plankton's population densities defined solely by biological factors, under the condition of homogeneous environment. To simulate self-organization of two plankton's species populations a mathematical model of the "predator-prey" type with regard to the effect of limited seeking by the predator was studied. The simulation results showed the fundamental possibility of spatial structures organization through limited self-movement of plankton.
The Kolka Glacier, which rushed down the Genaldon valley on September 20, 2002 (North Ossetia), is now recovering after this catastrophe. One of the most important ways to predict a new disaster is to determine the rate of ice accumulation of the new glacier and to monitor the glacier volume regularly, since its trigger mechanisms have not yet been fully studied. Recent changes of the Kolka Glacier were investigated by means of ground stereoscopic photography. The field works were carried out in 2014, 2016 and 2017. Shooting was made manually with a digital camera Canon 5D Mark II (without using a tripod) at arbitrary points, the distance between which did not exceed 100 m. The reference points were placed on the elevated relief forms on the glacier surface and coordinated by a differential GNSS receiver in the "fast static" mode. Laboratory processing of the photos was performed using Agisoft Photoscan software in automatic mode, except for the procedure of identification of reference points on stereo images. The processing made possible to obtain digital models of the glacier surface in GeoTIFF format, the vertical error of which amounted to 0.7 m, while the horizontal one – 2.3 m. In 2014–2017, the maximal increase in height of the surface (up to 30 m) was recorded in the low part of the glacier tongue that was the result of advancing of the Kolka front along the ice-free surface. Mean annual increase in the surface elevation was equal to 2.2 m/year. Lowering of the surface in some areas may be explained by the slowing-down of the glacier flow rate, which led to the appearance of thermokarst. The glacier volume increased by 7.4±0.7 million m3. As a result, the glacier tongue advanced by 50–70 m. Average over 2014–2017 increasing in the surface elevation (2.2 m/year) was slightly smaller than in 2004–2014 (3 m/year). Quick growth of the Kolka Gacier contrasts sharply with decreasing of volume of the representative Caucasus, Djankuat and Garabashi, over the same period.
A method is proposed for the study of the height–time characteristics of physical processes in the region of auroral electron acceleration. Auroral kilometer radiation, which is generated at the local electron gyrofrequency, can be used to obtain the height distribution of the properties of a radiation source in the auroral region, and long-term satellite measurements of the auroral kilometric radiation allows the evolution of these features to be tracked over time. This approach to the analysis of auroral kilometric radiation makes it possible to obtain data remotely on variations in the features of its source concurrently along the magnetic field line of the acceleration region. This approach has been used here to analyze the auroral kilometric radiation recorded on the INTERBALL-2 satellite within the POLRAD experiment. The analysis has revealed a regular change in the wavelet spectra of fluctuations in the auroral kilometric radiation along the magnetic field line. In the given frequency range with an almost constant radiation intensity, the fluctuation spectrum follows a power law at high altitudes and becomes uniform over all characteristic times at low altitudes. This spectral transformation indicates that the processes in the source of auroral kilometric radiation are nonlinear.
Observational data regarding anomalously high waves on the sea’s surface (freak or rogue waves) are reviewed. The objectives of the research are identified, and the difficulties encountered are noted. The main physical mechanisms employed in explaining rogue waves are listed, and possible approaches to predicting marine hazards are discussed. Principles for ongoing short-term forecasting of extreme waves (within tens of wave periods or wavelengths) are proposed. Some preliminary results are presented.