Recently, universal basic income (UBI) has become one of the most hotly debated issues in both academic and popular literature. The paper describes the conceptual core of this project, critically evaluates the philosophical, moral and economic arguments put forward both “for” and “against” it, and summarizes evidence on implementation of social programs close to it “in spirit”. It is emphasized that UBI should be viewed as a global politico-philosophical and ethico-economic project. This explains why its full-fledged version has never been put into practice anywhere and the consequences of its real introduction are unknown. The analysis is conducted in a comparative institutional perspective, which allows us to highlight the most important differences between this scheme and alternative forms of social support. Three lines of its justification are discussed — normative, positive and “alarmist” (referring to negative processes in the labor market) ones. The author concludes that UBI has no future as a real program of action. This project contradicts the latest trends in the evolution of welfare state; the costs associated with it are fiscally unbearable; most people perceive it as morally unacceptable. Most likely, UBI will end up as another cabinet utopia.
This paper analyses the impact of student academic achievement on future wages of Russian university graduates through looking into GPA-earnings relationship for graduates of Russian selective university, based on cross-sectional graduate survey data. The issue of how student academic achievement, measured by GPA impact future labor market rewards is analyzed through the set of academic, demographic and labor market factors. Our results indicate that there is no significant impact of GPA on future earnings for male graduates and negative impact for female graduates (8,2% wage penalty for additional GPA point). The effect of GPA on earnings is insignificant if we control for sectoral segregation. The evaluation of most detailed specification that reflects differences in spheres and sectors of employment and taking into account job tenure reveals that the effect is negative with low significance for entire sample (-5,2%) and for female graduate (-6,5%), but insignificant for male graduates. The existence of work experience before graduation is the most significant factor that positively affects future wages for both groups. However, we found no evidence that combining study and work affects student academic achievements.
The article analyzes social and economic factors that provide Russian attorneys an opportunity to compensate the institutional weakness of their profession, to protect the independency and effectively defend the interests of the clients. As an indicator of dependent position of attorney we use the proportion of cases with plea bargaining. Using the date of representative nationwide survey of 3317 attorneys in Russia we conclude that the independence of attorney is associated with ‘resources for confrontation’: previous experience, client’s demand for legal services, communication with colleagues and membership in professional associations.