Contemporary state of the competitive intransitivity hypothesis is considered. Intransitive competition among species occurs when, for example, species A outcompetes species B, B outcompetes C, and C outcompetes A (sometimes written as A > B > C > A). In the first part of the article, a summary of the studies of competitive intransitivity is given. Examples of really existing intransitive loops are discussed, as well as simulation models that provide a theoretical explanation for these processes. Pro hac vice, sufficient potential diversity of community, species interactions carried out in relatively stable limited space that can be reclaimed, and a penalty for the acquisition of competitive ability are prerequisite. In the second part, the hypothesis of competitive intransitivity is compared with neutral theory and niche theory. The results are believed to make some generalizations possible which could stimulate deeper understanding of the species coexistence phenomenon.
Plasma instability caused by an inhomogeneous energy density distribution is considered. It is shown that this instability can lead to the excitation of electrostatic ion-cyclotron and oblique ion-acoustic waves, generated in the presence of an inhomogeneous transverse electric field and a shear in the parallel drift velocity of the plasma particles. The considered physical mechanisms of the instability generation in plasma can serve as possible sources of broadband electrostatic turbulence in the auroral ionosphere.
The review deals with the latest approaches which are used for the development of modern vaccines. Vaccinomics as a tool to design the vaccines which determined by immunome is discussed here on example of actual foreign researches and authors' own studies.
Based on the data of experimental studies of wave disturbances in the Earth's atmosphere before and after the earthquakes in Uzbekistan (May 26, 2013) and Kyrgyzstan (January 8, 2007), earlier unknown changes in the parameters of internal gravity waves are revealed. These changes were manifested during the period of five days before the earthquake and in certain cases can be used for short-term prediction of the time when seismic events are to occur.
The comparative analyses of the group mental imagery characteristics and impact factors is the main focus of the article.
Formulation and general procedure for solving the problem and study the flight patterns of main-belt asteroids with use orbits in the vicinity of Mars were discussed.
The medium-term forecasting of the sea ice extent has been carried out by determining of the relationship between incoming solar radiation and the sea ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Different methods of the statistic and neural modeling have been used. Forecast shows that the main factor determining the variation of the maximum and minimum sea ice extent in the medium-term scale is the variability of solar radiation arrived at the top of the atmosphere. Evaluation of the medium-term forecasts of the sea ice extent demonstrates the effectiveness of using the averaged results of the regression analysis and neural network modeling.
The main directions of scientific research related to solving the problem of creating conditions in which all kinds of production and consumption wastes can be used as a commodity end products or as semi-finished products for the production of capital goods and consumer goods.
The broadband electrostatic turbulence generally observed in the high-latitude ionosphere is a superposition of nonlocal waves of ion-acoustic and ion-cyclotron types. In the presence of a shear of ion parallel velocity, ion-acoustic modes can be induced by an instability emerging due to an inhomogeneous distribution of energy density. This paper is devoted to the studies of excitation of oblique ion-acoustic wave in background configurations with inhomogeneous profiles of both electric field and ion parallel velocity. A numerical algorithm has been developed, and instability was simulated at various parameters of background plasma. The general possibility of oblique ion-acoustic wave generation by a gradient of ion parallel velocity is shown. In this case, the wave spectrum is found to be broadband, which agrees with satellite observations.
The article examines the main features of obligatory certification national systems in the transitional period of national technical regulations enactment in Russia and Customs Union of Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC).
The article examines the lessons of physical training with military female with regard to their morphological and functional, psycho-physiological characteristics. Discusses controversial issues in the thematic changes in the disciplines of the department plans to overcome obstacles, melee and mountain training.