This paper is the first attempt at quantitative and qualitative analysis of the Soviet literature on general equilibrium theory in 1960—1990s. We divide the papers into four subgroups: von Neumann—Gale class of models and equilibrium growth; Arrow—Debreu class of models; disequilibrium theory; and other branches of general equilibrium theory. Bibliometric analysis shows that von Neumann—Gale class of models was most popular in the Soviet mathematical economics.
The paper outlines the basics of the mechanism design theory and describes the defining contribution of Leo Hurwiсz, Eric Maskin, and Roger Myerson, the Nobel prize winners in economics in 2007. It starts by introducing the concepts of economic mechanism, incentive compatibility, and implementation, and provides a non-technical description of main results. Then it explains the relationship between theoretical foundations and real-world market mechanisms such as auctions. Finally, recent applications of the mechanism design theory to institutional analysis are discussed.
The article analyzes the prerequisites for creating TOS communities, the features of their functioning and efficiency. To do this, the authors use a variety of sources of information, including a number of surveys conducted in Kirov. Evaluation of regression models shows that the conditions for the emergence of TOSs include grassroots social capital and property rights, but at the same time citizens feel responsibility for the city and seek to gain the support of the authorities in solving local problems. At the same time, TOSs appear more often where people do not believe in the collective ability of society to achieve accountability and effective work of municipal authorities.
The paper provides a critical analysis of the idea of technological unemployment. The overview of the existing literature on the employment effects of technological change shows that on the micro-level there exists strong and positive relationship between innovations and employment growth in firms; on the sectoral level this correlation becomes ambiguous; on the macro-level the impact of new technologies seems to be positive or neutral. This implies that fears of explosive growth of technological unemployment in the foreseeable future are exaggerated. Our analysis further suggests that new technologies affect mostly the structure of employment rather than its level. Additionally we argue that automation and digitalisation would change mostly task sets within particular occupations rather than distribution of workers by occupations.
The paper analyzes the main trends of consumer markets in the post-crisis period. Particular attention is paid to the manifestation of global trends in Russia. The increasing value systems and lifestyle fragmentation leads to changes in even such fundamental elements of the human society as gender differentiation and models of family life. The growth of popularity of the economical consumption model is accompanied by a drop in loyalty to brands, as well as by increasing popularity of downshifting and minimalism. In these circumstances, those productsthat are able to take immediately into account several consumption trends and offer complete solutions have the best commercial prospects.