The problem of propagation of an electromagnetic wave in plane-stratified magnetoactive plasma is analyzed. A matrix algorithm of approximate solution of a set of wave equations is proposed. The algorithm consists in successive finding of the medium-inhomogeneity-induced corrections to the local roots of the dispersion relation and local polarization vectors. The set of field equations is reduced to a set of algebraic equations. The proposed algorithm is convenient for numerical calculations. In contrast to the classical geometrical- optics approximation, the proposed algorithm allows one to take into account the weak effect of linear mode interaction. Examples of numerical calculations of the power reflection coefficient of whistler waves incident on the ionosphere from above are presented. The proposed matrix algorithm can be useful to find the coefficients of reflection and linear transformation of waves in a smoothly inhomogeneous ionosphere.
The author in his paper «Between chance and necessity: apriori concept in evolutionary epistemology» has proposed a a new principle of classification of Konrad Lorenz’ evolutionary epistemology critique. The Lorenzian argument realistically explains correspondence between our biological apriori and external world by natural selection. Historically this argument was subjected to various forms of critique which the author proposes to classify as accentuating chance or necessity. The author assumed this classification to be quite natural because natural selection itself is frequently thought as a special synthesis of chance and necessity.
The paper provides an overview of studies dedicated to correlations between school teacher salaries and regional economics and to the local factors affecting the size of teacher salaries. The paper describes the basic teacher pay indicators in the regions: absolute salary, teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, ratio of salary to the average consumer bsket and to the per capita gross regional product. Based on the calculations performed using open databases of governmental authorities, a classification of regions by teacher pay levels was developed, providing seven clusters of regions. For each of the clusters, we have elaborated recommendations on teacher remuneration, identifying typical risks and challenges. These recommendations are designed to improve efficiency of activities that are part of the education policy by way of differentiating federal assistance. The conclusion is that, apart from the index of teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, which is the benchmark of governmental programs, one should also consider the ratios of salary to the average consumer basket and to the per capita gross regional product.
The morphometry of the beaver’s skull, found on the course of archaeological excavations in medieval layers of Novgorod the Great, is provided. The comparative analysis with ancient and modern autochthonous and reintroduced populations suggests the race of large beavers, once inhabiting Volkhov basin. Further studies are necessary to accept or discharge this hypothesis
The article discusses the potential role of Russia in global carbon markets, prospects and opportunities for national businesses in greenhouse gas emission reduction
A technique of determining the probabilistic parameters of the temperature dependencies of the impact toughness KSV and crack resistance K1c for pressure vessel steels. The technique utilizes a program that performs evaluation of the nonlinear regression parameters by the least squares method and tangent-hyperbolic approximation of the mean values of experimental data regarding which the distribution of data is close to the normal law. The program allows to calculate the parameters of th-approximation, the standard deviation, the width of the confidence band of the approximation, and the sample correlation coefficient.
The goal of the study is to assess the mechanisms of transformation of Moscow agglomeration under the inluence of residential housing construction at different spatial levels. Methodological basis of the study is the database on individual housing construction projects of Moscow agglomeration, formed by the authors, as well as the proposed typology of housing projects. Compared to traditional analysis at the municipal level, this technique takes into account spatial differentiation of the housing market. The typology of housing projects is carried out on three main parameters: the size class of projects, the location of the existing building, the cost of housing. Theoretically, the study is based on a concentric model of Moscow agglomeration with the binding of the boundaries of the zones to the actual barriers in the housing market, which helps identify six zones. The scientific novelty of the work consists in determining the ratio of intensive and extensive ways of agglomeration development not only at the macro level (in terms of the balance between the commissioning of housing within and outside the Moscow ring road and agglomeration belts), but also at the micro level (in terms of location of projects in relation to existing buildings). In 2015–2017, extensive development of Moscow agglomeration at the macro level (construction of the Moscow ring road) accounted for 80% of housing construction, at the micro level (construction of free territories) – 50%. The practical significance of the study consists in the fact that it allocates the zone between the Moscow ring road and the Moscow smaller ring, where 70% of the supply of the primary housing market of Moscow agglomeration is concentrated. The extensive way of development – predominance of large projects of low-cost housing on free land – turns this zone into the main “territory of entry” of migrants to Moscow agglomeration. By regulating the intensity of housing construction in this key area, it is possible to manage trends in the development of the national settlement system, and through it – trends in the development of regional economies.
Russian and foreign studies have established that people with a migration experience easier change their place of residence again, compared with those who never did not. The migrants divided into two main groups - new settlers and old residents, who have lived in the site of invasion for a long time and an intermediate group from newcomers to old-timers. The regions where the settlers adapt best are Moscow, St. Petersburg. In most regions of the Far East and Siberia (except Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs) large number of migrants compensated by the large number of who left.
Drawing from the data on the home buyers’ addresses, we estimate the purchasing activity of Russians in the primary real estate market of Moscow metropolitan area (MMA) and compare it to their labor migration activity. The objects of analysis are 149 cities and 80 «rests of regions». This article is the first ever to examine the peculiarities of migration and investment behavior with differentiation between cities and rural areas, between size classes of settlements and individual large cities. Thus, the paper makes it possible to fill a gap in assessing the mobility of the factors of production, namely capital and labor. We reveal a sharp contrast between settlements of different sizes in terms of how they interact with the metropolitan agglomeration. The bigger the settlement, the less is the intensity of labor migration to the capital; the intensity is decreasing in a rapid and monotonous manner. The activity of foreign buyers depending on the population of the city where they reside varies non-mono tonously, with a maximum for cities with a population of 250-500 thousand people in the real estate market of Moscow and 100–500 thousand people in Moscow Oblast. For MMA, small towns and rural areas (except for Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Areas) are a source of labor resources while their buying activity in the real estate market is weak. Cities with a population of over one million practically do not create an inflow of labor migrants and show moderate activity in the Moscow real estate market. Moscow Oblast interacts through labor migration and housing acquisitions with smaller settlements than the «premium» real estate and labor markets of Moscow. The attraction of Moscow Oblast is rapidly decreasing with distance, extending to the first- and second-order neighbors, while Moscow’s influence spreads throughout the country.
The article is devoted to the development of Russian migration over the past century. The author has made an attempt to trace the temporal and spatial changes of migration processes on the example of the two regions by the census data analyzing. The development of the Yenisei province was part of the Siberia colonization process, and then the region had taken an active part in the "Western drift", and natives of the Ryazan province always had a great influence on the formation of the Moscow population. These migrations are one of the largest in the history of the country.
In this paper one analyzed the intensity and age characteristics of migration in recent years, using the data at the level of municipalities and municipal districts of Moscow and Moscow region. Particular concern is paid to the migration from Moscow to the Moscow region. Calculations show that Moscow region, located in the zone closest to the Ring of cities and regions, feel the most intense influx of migrants. At the same time there were not discovered distinct age characteristics of migration in the areas that were near and far from the Moscow region.
On the basis of data for the 1989—2002 and 2003—2010 years, the migration of young people at the level of cities and areas of 19 Russian regions is analyzed. Migration is estimated by the “age-group shift” for the corresponding periods between censuses which provides more accurate estimates in comparison with the data of current statistics. Migration of young people has an expressed centripetal nature everywhere; their migration rate from the province is higher the farther one goes from regional centers. All regional capitals attracted young people in the period under review which has a positive effect on the age structure of their population, and only large cities could retain young people among their population. Migration of young people from the periphery is sustainable; it depends on the common migration attractiveness of regions and reaches the greatest extent in the East and in the depressed areas of the Center. In small and medium-sized cities on the periphery of regions, the outflow of young people almost always reaches the same intensity as in the countryside.
The main trends of rural migration, the spatial distribution of labor resources in rural areas and the change in agricultural employment associated with its post-Soviet transformation are analyzed. Five types of regions and their subtypes are identified which have different prospects for agriculture development and its labor resources. The relationship between rural labor resources and informal («shadow») employment, including seasonal and other temporal work in cities, is discussed. Despite the fact that spatial variations of agriculture stem from both natural, institutional and economic conditions and the accumulated consequences of rural depopulation, the actual population drain has no direct linkage with the agriculture wellbeing. Key factors are described due to which even positive trends and sustained growth of agricultural production do not in fact reduce human incentives to move from the countryside to cities, both for permanent residence and in search of temporary work.