The first article devoted to philosophy of liberal education (Voprosy obrazovaniya / Educational Studies Moscow no 1, 2020) laid out systematically the principles of that philosophy, such as (1) lifelong learning, (2) academic freedom, (3) importance of practice and experience, (4) critical thinking and civil competency, (5) competency development instead of knowledge accumulation, (6) priority of general education over specialized education, (7) the concept of learning to learn, (8) self-directed learning effort, (9) political neutrality, and (10) interaction and Socratic dialogue. In this second part of the article, the liberal model of education is contextualized under two main perspectives, historical and socio-theoretical. The historical perspective is used to discuss the ancient origin of the liberal model, German classical philosophy university as a direct source of its principles, and the trajectories of liberal education discourse elements penetrating Russia’s educational and cultural policies. The socio-theoretical perspective is applied to the context in which the liberal model was conceived (the infancy of modernity), the social conditions that led to its crisis (settled industrial modern societies), and its relevance in the era of late modernity.
The article is based on a survey of higher education institutions in Kazakhstan conducted by a group of experts from the Organization for Economic Co"operation and Development and the World Bank. The authors examine the strategies for mobilizing resources that the government can employ in order to compensate for the low level of education funding: stimulation of the private higher education system, participation in the financing of education, privatization of state"owned universities. The grant (voucher) system of education funding that is being used in Kazakhstan is discussed in detail.
One merit of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is that apart from a direct school students cognitive appraisal, it enables to collect information on teachers of these students, on their education, work experience and teaching practices. The first difference method was used to determine how teachers characteristics were associated with students achievements and to overcome restrictions of TIMSS correlation design. In addition, effects of teachers characteristics were evaluated by the conventional regressions method. The discovered associations differed across subject areas, and the first difference method results differed from the conventional correlation analysis results. For mathematics the first difference method revealed negative association of reproductive tasks and collaborative learning with achievements, and tasks aimed at comprehension and development of metasubject skills showed positive association. For natural science reproductive tasks showed, on the contrary, positive association, while tasks aimed at comprehension and development of metasubject skills either did not produce any effects, or they were negative. Also, for natural science, unlike mathematics, a teachers experience considerably influenced students achievements.
Value of higher education. Opinions of representatives of families with children on the value of education. A survey of the «Public Opinion» Foundation A review of results of a Russian household survey in which there were analyzed the influence of education, profession, and career status of the parents, domicile, material and cultural resources of the family on the education strategies of children, as well as the extent, structure, and incentives of the education activity of adults.
In many countries, the modern state education system is unable to satisfy the growing demand for education, in particular under conditions of budget deficit. Private schools both help to satisfy this demand and enhance the overall standards of quality and teaching efficiency. Unlike state-run schools, which are unable to provide quality basic education for all, private schools are financially efficient, rapidly react to emerging problems, and are highly transparent. The article gives a characterization of the private education sector and considers its interactions with the state education system. The author discusses the means by which the state may regulate private education and the principal types of partnership between the state and private entities in education. The review mostly deals with pre-university education.
The article is devoted to a new type of educational programs that are formed at the intersection of higher and secondary education. Education as an institute is seen as an instrument of social stratification of society. The authors analyze the major developments of education as an institute, for instance differentiation between of academic and vocational educational programs and the creation of programs of production a “Homo habilis” — a skilled performer. Changes in the vocational education system are considered in the light of the introduction of the new educational standards FSES 2011 (Federal State Educational Standards).
The authors estimate contribution of different factors in reading skills of 15?year-olds by using four models of multilevel regression analysis. It turned out that the most significant factor is family background — not only at the individual level, but at the school level as well (average school socio-economic status of schoolchildren families effects average reading skills). At the school level the aggregated family characteristics of students affect individual achievements, and this effect surpasses an effect of school resources and localization of schools — those school factors that show a significant contribution to achievement. Attitudes toward reading and learning are significant at the individual level, but at the school level children’s attitudes toward reading and school don’t make an independent contribution to the individual results.
On the basis of PISA-2009 materials: Reading literacy The efficiency of one year of study was explored on the basis of PISA-2009 (reading) materials in seven countries: Russia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Germany, Canada and Brazil. An instrumental variable was used, which enabled to assess the effect of one year of study by the nonstrict method of regression discontinuity. The analysis included both general educational programs and vocational educational programs together and comprehensive schools separately. It is found that in Russia the efficiency of one year of study is insignificant to all programs’ students. In the countries where early division into general educational and vocational programs is practised, the efficiency of studying is lower than in the countries where all pupils of 15 years old learn a general educational program. For general educational programs’ students the efficiency of studying is significant in all countries. Compared to the general educational trajectory, low efficiency is typical of vocational programs’ students. The way a family’s socio-economic status and efficiency of school education are interrelated and how much they are interrelated depends a lot on an educational system and vary widely by country. In Russia, as well as in some other countries, efficiency of studying does not depend on pupils’ socio-economic indices. The importance of the results obtained for assessment of efficiency of studying is discussed, and particularly for fair assessment of national achievements in countries with different sets of educational trajectories.
The paper is focused on changes in higher engineering education in Russia over the last decade. We assume that, as a result of technological and organizational changes in the markets young engineers are taught to work in, changes in education may be called for. The key change in the markets for engineers in Russia consists of the transition from planned to market economy, and thus the appearance of markets per se, and also in a shift away from a focus on the defense industry. To identify the possible changes and assess the current state of engineering education, we compare opinions of four target groups: university administrators, students, recent graduates, and employers.
This study looked at the effects of phonological preparedness and vocabulary size in children, who just started primary school, on their progress in reading at the end of the first grade while controlling for other factors that can be related to increasing or decreasing reading achievements (such as SES, parenting activities and noncognitive development of children). The study was conducted using data from the iPIPS project which assesses the preparedness of children for schooling and their progress at the end of the first school year. The sample consisted of 2740 first-graders living in two large Russian cities (Krasnoyarsk and Kazan) whose reading skills were assessed twice, at the beginning and at the end of the 2014–2015 school year. The results demonstrated that low levels of phonological ability and vocabulary are related to lower results not only for those who just started learning to read (as is suggested by the theoretical framework of reading skills acquisitions) but also for children who already have basic reading skills or read well. To compensate for this, special teaching approaches might be needed. Among family factors the main predictors or reading results were the level of the father’s education and language at home. Parenting activities related to reading were divided into informal (reading a book, discussing a book, reading street signs out loud during walks etc.) and formal (deliberate teaching of letters and writing letters or words), with informal activities being a significant predictor of reading outcomes at the end of the first year. Conclusions and limitations of the study are discussed.