"Justice in labor remuneration as a value orientation and work motivation factor" (by Alexandr Temnitski) discusses a recently emerging paradox in labor motivations. While over 90 per cent of employees keep indicating their earnings as an overwhelmingly leading work motivation, all attempts by theoreticians to establish co-relations with other variables have failed so far for lack of their differentiating capacity. Alternatively, so author, justice in wages might be taken as a meaningful factor for work motivation affecting, primarily, the feeling about wage size, but also most of the aspects of work in a certain productive unit. In turn, these findings might serve for construing effective strategies in personnel management under current Russian conditions.
Based on the concept of subjectively perceived history, the citizens’ demand for historical types of social conditions that existed at different stages of Russian development in the Soviet and Post–soviet period (1950–2019) is estimated. We use a method that allows us to construct a continuous curve of “demand for eras” on the basis of a free choice of years in which the well-being of an individual and his reference group was maximized (minimized) due to certain set of goods (bads) inherent in these years. The limits of transformation of the demand curve for eras in connection with future changes in the relative weight of Soviet generations and Millennials in Russian society are shown. Changes within these limits do not qualitatively change its current form. It is shown that the growth of the social value of a modern period of history can be achieved on the basis of a set of goods identical to the ones of the era of “developed socialism”. The degree of polarization of historical memory is measured by period: the polarization is minimal in relation to the 1960–1970s, the 1990s (with a negative sign), and the first decade of the 2000s, but increases in relation to the second half of the 1980s and the second decade of the 2000s. Along with financial and economic difficulties, the latter period is characterized by a perceived lack of psychological integrity, but its potential is determined by the historical vote for it of the younger part of Millennials. It is statistically proved that individual differences in choosing the best era and the differentiation of views on the era of the 2000s are determined by belonging to a generation, income, level of education and family composition.
This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 16-18-10270.
A youth labour market limited in size and regulated by the state can engender specific strategies of market entry for university students. The article discusses the socio-economic context of a regulated labour market analyzing several starting work strategies of students depending on their working status, criteria for choosing the working place and their plans to practise their profession. Cluster analysis of survey data collected among the Belarusian universities’ students (2016, 2017, and 2019) characterises typical patterns of students’ labour strategies and their criteria for selecting employment place. The analysis demonstrates that a majority of students are driven by a simultaneous pursuit of value orientations to self-realization and material well-being and diverging, potentially conflicting welfare expectations and plans to work sticking to their education profile. Financial remuneration does not dominate their choices, which differs from the motivations of young professionals according to other surveys. Labour market regulations play a controversial role: guaranteeing the first working place for the students they limit their freedom of choice in the labour sphere. Our findings contribute to the discussion of how students use different strategies to solve the clash between their need for personal development and the limitations of a labour market with the government regulation of graduates’ employment.
"Case-study strategies in surveying social services" (by Pavel Romanov) considers the specifics of case-study strategies making using own field experiences in studying social services in contemporary Russia. In particular, ethnographic methods are characterized in application to sociological surveys of organizations, as well as history and types of this method. Specifics of contexts and cases are duly demonstrated as well as procedures and stages of the studies under discussion. The real-size scheme of an ethnographic case-study related to social services is offered. In conclusion, the author makes some remarks in connection with the theoretical perspectives used for planning, making and analyzing this type of sociological surveys.
Specifics of stratification model of mass strata in Russian society, based on the M. Veber ideas of the positive and negative privileges of different strata, are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the Russian population is divided into three main strata – top one (15%), whose position and well-being are qualitatively different from the rest of population, and relatively close to each other average (55%) and lower (30%) strata. Over the years, the average stratum grows, while the upper one shrinks even in conditions of the fall in the standard of living of the average Russian (that took place during the years of the last economic crisis), and the lower stratum decreases as well, but mainly due to the fall of this standard. It is shown that three defined strata differ in professional and educational status of its representatives, in their satisfaction with various aspects of their life, property characteristics, etc. The greatest polarization currently characterizes life chances of different strata representatives in their employment and access to the channels for preserving and increasing their human capital. This will contribute to the further preservation of the differences between representatives of different strata and to gradual social closure of their borders, although they currently are sufficiently permeable. According to deprivations, the greatest polarization of the upper and lower strata characterizes the features of their consumption and leisure. It has been demonstrated that the consistency of the status characteristics of different strata is relatively low (with the exception of the power status), and as a result, inequality in life chances is much smoother than income inequality. It is also shown that the share of the poor "by income", defined by Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat), is several times less than the actually deprived part of the population, which is not capable of leading a typical way of life for the average Russian.
With the rapid growth of online social network sites (SNS), the issue of health-related online communities and its social and behavioral outcomes has become increasingly popular in Internet studies and sociology of health and medicine. This paper presents the results of the empirical study investigating the structure of the 'friendship' networks and participants' communicative activity within 15 online groups on VK.com SNS. In this pilot study we seek to trace the relation between declared aims (social functions) and structure of online groups devoted to the HIV/AIDS theme. First, we propose a classification of online HIV-related groups according to their declared purposes and actual social functions. The most widespread group types on VK.com SNS are HIV activists, HIV-infected dating groups, AIDS denialists movement groups, online pages of offline organizations and social support groups. Second, we identify and describe several patterns of network structure and user behavior occurring among these groups. We distinguish five types of community structure: tight crowd, polarized crowd, stratified structure, clustered network and disintegrated structure. Finally, we find and interpret the relation between the purposes and functions, on the one hand, and network structure of online communities, on the other. Tight crowd networks mainly occur in dating groups for HIV-infected persons and, and links in them are determined by users' gender (either homogeneous or heterogeneous ties prevail). Stratified structure is related to HIV activists and especially to AIDS denialists movement groups. The crucial factor of network formation for this pattern is participation in public discussion within a group. Active users form a cohesive community while passive users stay isolated or connected with just a few active users. Our findings are consistent with some previous research on communication network structures on other social media platforms.
The article is about explanatory resources of soviet sociology for occupations and professions studies. Firstly, author analyzes works of researchers soviet social structure because in this area the studies of occupations and professional groups were developed. Next part devoted the history of the soviet industrial sociology movement that included a lot of directions and topics for studies situations in soviet industry. A lot of contemporary russian sociologists started their careers like "industrial sociologists" and had close relation to professional groups in industry.
This article presents the results of analysis of representations of young people constructed in newspapers and academic journals concerned Russian higher education. The main focus is the specificity of representation of young people in central Russian newspapers
This article provides insight into the state of the judicial system in post-Soviet Russia within social context. It involves results of a survey of the attitude of the Russian citizens towards the judicial system and judiciary. Majority disapproval is determined by the fact that people do not respect or trust courts of law assuming that they are dependent on the other branches and influenced by other political and economic actors. They believe that the judges are not willing to protect citizens’ rights, are corrupt, unfair and inhumane, which determines the accusatory bias of the Russian judicial system. At the same time, Russian judiciary consists mainly of representatives of administrative and bureaucratic professional subculture focused on superior authorities and powers, most court chairpersons have Soviet professional training and experience. The Judicial system of post-Soviet Russia has inherited problems of Soviet justice and is incapable of acting in the social system as an impartial arbitrator and conscience of the state.