This article is based upon newly discovered archival documents from the Russian Archives of Social and Political History (RGASPI), including Deng Xiaoping's personal files as well as personal files of his classmates. It thoroughly examines Deng Xiaoping's days in Moscow in 1926-27 when he took classes at Sun Yat-sen University - leading Comintern school of higher learning. The authors meticulously research ideological and political impact of the Bolshevik education on the future great Chinese reformer. They conclusively demonstrate that Deng's study in Moscow at the time when the New Economic Policy was emphasized in the USSR greatly enriched his Marxist views. It laid theoretical foundations for the imminent emergence of the so-called Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in the People's Republic of China.
December 11, 2016 marked the 15th anniversary of China's accession to the WTO. According to the Chinese side, this period is the basis for the automatic granting of China the status of a country with a market economy. What will change in relations between China and the European Union after this date and what is behind the reluctance of European countries to grant China this status? How will the results of the referendum in the UK affect the relations between China and the EU? What are the prospects for the conclusion of the EU-US Transatlantic partnership agreement and how will China's positions in Europe change as a result? These and other issues are discussed in this article.
By the middle of the 19th century Japan faced a relative backwardness of its economic system and thus almost failed to protect its national security. Under these conditions Japanese elite made a decision to conduct radical transformation of the Japanese social and economic systems. The land tax reform was the leading positive factor in this process, which allowed to centralize the government of the country and to finance the very initial stage of Japan's industrialization. This article contributes to the discussion of the land tax reform in Japan, carried out in Meiji period, as well as its influence on the further socio-economic development of the country.
This year September 4 marks the 125th anniversary of the birth of one of the first Chinese communists, the main organizer and leader of the women's revolutionary movement in China, Xiang Jingyu (1895-1928). Her life, dedicated to the struggle for the freedom of China and the emancipation of women, is steeped in legend, and her heroic death during the White Terror is deeply respected. Her name is on a par with the names of the main heroes of the Chinese revolution.
The article is devoted to Japan's reaction to the "One belt, One Road" initiative put forward by China and also to the formation of a Japanese strategy towards the PRC in the new conditions. The concept of the Indo-Pacific region developed by Japan and the United States is analyzed. There are attempts to involve India in the creation of an anti-Chinese "Quartet" of States with the participation of the United States, Japan, Australia and India. Alternative economic programs of Japan, its struggle with China for influence in Southeast Asia, and Tokyo's attempts to prevent Chinese expansion in the South China sea are considered. Attention is drawn to the fact that Japanese society is growing in favor of establishing economic cooperation with Beijing in the countries of the region.
The article discusses the features of the activities of consular institutions of the Russian Empire in Mongolia in the field of analysis of the political and military situation there in early XX Century. It examines the work of foreign establishments of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for monitoring the implementation of China’s policy in Outer Mongolia and the neighboring regions, highlights the participation of Russian diplomats in limiting the spread of Japanese influence in Mongolia, and explains their mediation role in resolving the “Tibet issue”.
The paper focuses on the main factors underling the structural transformation of Chinese model of socio-economic development – slowdown in economic growth, expansion of domestic consumption, increasing role of services, technological development and changes in regional value chains. Analysis of factors serves as a base for the assessment of changes in volume and structure of Chinese demand in the context of Chinese-Russian trade and economic relations.
The European direction of China's foreign policy after a period of cooling in the second half of the first decade of the XXI century is once again becoming one of the main for Beijing. At the same time, the relations of China's "comprehensive" strategic partnership with the European Union are only one of the directions of China's foreign policy activity in Europe. This article attempts to summarize various forms of cooperation between Beijing and European countries