The paper presents a new psychometric instrument, Experiences in Activity Questionnaire (EAQ) based on combinatorial model of optimal experience created by the second author. The 12-item questionnaire includes 4 scales measuring the subjective experiences of pleasure, meaning, effort, and void within a specific activity. We present the results of validation of this instrument in a cross-sectional study using a sample of Russian production enterprise employees (N=1142) of different levels. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the theoretically expected structure of the instrument, whose scale exhibited acceptable reliability (α = 0.70-0.92; ρ = 0.84-0.90) and theoretically expected associations with indicators of life satisfaction, job satisfaction, affect balance at work, work engagement, emotional exhaustion, and self-reported work performance. The experiences of pleasure, meaning, and effort showed stronger associations with autonomous work motivation, whereas the experience of void was more strongly related to controlled work motivation. The associations of job demands and resources with work experiences showed that optimal experience was mainly predicted by role clarity, absence of role conflict, autonomy at work, and support from supervisor. Using cluster analysis, we found 4 typical patterns of experiences at work with distinct profiles on other variables. Respondents with a combination of high levels of pleasure, effort, and meaning with low levels of void showed the highest levels of work well-being and performance. A negative experience profile (meaningless and unpleasant effort, void) was mostly characteristic of blue-collar employees who reported low levels of family income. The findings are in line with the predictions of the combinatorial model and support the validity of EAQ, which can be used for research, as well as diagnostic purposes.
The aim of this paper is to equip the modern techniques of teamwork with heuristic methods
to organize group sessions of complex problem solving. It seems important because of in teamwork we should organize teams and problem solving process. There are a lot of methods and techniques for teamwork, but they are not designed for complex problem solving. We offer the cycle model of problem solving by R. Sternberg as the methodological basis of the teamwork at complex problem solving (CPS). We considering the possibility of constructing the procedure for CPS based on the classification of heuristic methods. The paper recommends specific heuristic methods for team CPS for each stage of the movement in the problem space. The novelty of the work lies in the fact that the proposed scheme simplifies the design of teamwork CPS sessions. And it creates opportunities for a more organized solution of complex problems in the group set of heuristic techniques.
The article presents the results of a study conducted on a sample of talent pool in financial organizations to identify key scales of motivational space. Motivational tasks was used for conducting the study. Motivational task is a tool for self-appraisal of the field of motivational objects allowing further reconstruction of motivational space. The conditions of the motivational task resolution have been implemented in the assesment procedure named Motivational Map. The diagnostics procedure consists in multiple visual appraisal of 16 motivational objects (J.Nuttin) within a dimensional graphic space determined by 6 evaluation scales. As a result of multidimensional scaling we obtained empirical scales of work motivation space: Personal priorities, Social significance, Perceptiveness.
The study evaluates the relationship between charity brand image and donors’ giving behavior. We use qualitative data collected via online-survey (N=97) to elicit significant characteristics of charities as perceived by donors. Based on qualitative findings we design 63 bipolar scales and test our instrument on a sample of donors (those who donated money (N=91) and time (N=101)). Using exploratory factor analysis, we obtain 5 factors explaining 40,9% and 43,5% of variance in the answers, respectively. Factor structure is different for donors and volunteers. Using regressions we show that the five factors predict charitable intentions (repeated giving and recommendations) (R2=0,607 for monetary donators and 0,569 for volunteers). Money donors highly value positive emotions associated with giving, whereas volunteers put more emphasis on smooth operation of the charity. We find that such characteristic as popularity (charity is well-known) is not significantly linked with repeated donations or recommendations. The results indicate that brand-image is an important path of attracting donors. These findings may help managers of charities better tailor their branding campaign by addressing appropriate groups of donors/volunteers. The study focuses on both actual and future giving behavior and utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to design and validate the survey instrument.
The special section “Individuality in business and organizations” was organized during the V International Conference “Psychology of individuality” (December 9-11, 2015; HSE, Moscow). Section was organized on the initiative of the Department of Organizational Psychology and Master’s program “Business Psychology” (HSE). The work of the section was attended by representatives of more than twenty different regions of Russia. The work of the Section was managed by prof. Natalia Ivanova, prof. Takhir Bazarov, prof. Wladimir Stroh and associate professor Natalia Antonova. The included reports covered a big scope of organizational and business psychological problems, which have become the subject of scientific analysis or practical work.
This article, based on a literature review, is aimed to describe the ways of artistic interventions implementation into the context of organisational research. Three types of such interventions are defined: 1) arts based research (made by organisational researcher in order to gain knowledge about the phenomenon, it's aesthetic value is secondary, but the outcomes have a potential to be considered as art objects under special conditions); 2) artistic research made by an artist working in the frame of organisational project (often can be qualified as applied task or advertisement, but in some cases can meet the criteria for scientific “action research”, if conceptual reflection is provided and the data is analysed); 3) artistic research of organization made by an independent artist (critical reflection on organisational phenomena which can bring insights to organisational researchers and can be developed into a well articulated art-research collaboration). The examples of artistic interventions with respect to every type are given and their scientific and aesthetic values and meanings are discussed.
Programmer's professional activity requires an amount of work with different artificial languages. Many studies report that effective programming is correlated with the high level of verbal intelligence. In this paper we study the dynamics of artificial language learning among programmers in comparison with psychologists and the group of non-professional users. We show that programmers learn artificial language in a different way, then the other groups, and this difference is based on their professional requirements.
The journal “Organizational Psychology” continues to publish Russian standards governing different professional activities in the field of applied and practical psychology.
Training and development of employees in the organization — one of the key Human Resource Management. One of the powerful resources in today’s organizations is to train subordinate their immediate supervisor. Formation of such a management system focused not only on the implementation of short-term problems but also on staff development is a challenge for today’s organizations, which require special training of managers at all levels and the development of their leadership skills. The purpose of the study was an empirical study of leadership behavior of managers at different managerial levels. The sample totaled 897 executives from international companies for the production of consumer goods with traditional (pyramid) management structure, consisting of nine levels (their leadership behavior was rated by 5120 subordinates). As a result, we can conclude that in the organization at different administrative levels changed not only the quantitative nature of leadership activities but its structure. At higher managerial levels, this structure becomes more uniform. This study empirically confirms the theoretical point of R. Charan formulated in «Leadership Pipeline» concept: the presence of differences in managerial leadership behavior at different levels of the organizational hierarchy. Webring to this position a number of clarifications: 1) leadership actions that are fundamental to the lower levels of the organizational hierarchy (management support) lose their value to his subordinates at higher management levels, the role of the fair treatment and recognition, on the contrary, increased; 2) these proposals are valid for each of the management levels in the organization, but the difference between the levels themselves increases with moving by the organizational hierarchy. The practical implication can be applied in the formation, adoption, and evaluation of leadership development models and managers training. The results are also consistent with the basic provisions of Russian methodological management psychology and the action psychology.
The given study is aimed to test cultural universality of the structure of informal ties in organizations in five different countries (Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Russia, UK, Brazil; N = 663). Study is based on the three-dimensional dynamic model of guanxi relations, which is specific to Chinese culture [Chen et al., 2009]. This model suggests that guanxi includes the following aspects of supervisor-subordinate relationships: emotional attachment, personal life inclusion, and deference to supervisor. Using confirmatory factor analysis we proved that the given structure of informal relationships is cultural-universal. The partial metric invariance for these three scales is also given. Results potentiate farther comparative studies of informal ties in organizations, and their effect on different psychological variables as motivation, organizational commitment and others. Such studies can serve as a basis to develop training programs for managers to help them to consider the fact of presence of informal ties in organization, and to manage this resource properly.