The article is focused on the subjec-matter of activity mediation of interpersonal relationships. In contrast with functional-role and personal-emotional ones it is determined by orientation of people's activity towards "universal "I" and by logic of the "object". Levels-layers of intragroup relationships determined by the goal of collaborative activity, personal-business relationships, private emotional-personal relationships are described. The reasons for qualitative difference between activity-mediated relationships in a collectivity and activity-mediated relationships in a corporation as well as the potential of activity-mediated relationships to "warm up" private emotional relationships in a group are analyzed. Phenomena and peculiarities in life of a group revealed by the author of activity mediation theory are related to categories of transactional analysis and the other systems of counseling psychology. That gives the way to the special - personological - approach to the further research.
The article presents results from a cross-cultural study of the interrelation between the activity of Internet use and individual values of the highest order (S. Schwartz): “Self-Transcendence” — “Self-Enhancement” and “Openness to change” — “Conservation”. The data of the eighth wave of the European Social Research (ESS) was an empirical base of the study. In a comparative perspective, we analyzed the links between Internet use and values in Russia (N=2430), as well as in the three European countries that hold the highest rating in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT Development Index, 2017): Iceland (N=880), Switzerland (N=1519), and UK (N=1926). The data were processed using structural equation modeling (SEM) as well as multigroup structural equation modeling (MGSEM). The study showed that similar between Russia and European countries is the lack of connection between the activity of using the Internet with the values of “Self- Transcendence “, as well as a positive relationship with the values of “Openness to change”. Also, was found the following differences in patterns of relationships: on the sample of Russians value “ Self-Enhancement “ was associated positively with the activity of using the Internet, and on a sample of Western European countries this link is missing, but there is a negative relationship value, “Conservation”, away from the Russians. Based on the data obtained, we supposed how the values of Russians may change in the process of further digitalization of society and increasing involvement in the use of the Internet.
In recent years, public and scientific discourse has constantly raised questions about how modern information and communication technologies (ICT) affect interpersonal relations and family relations in particular. Studies on the impact of information and communication technologies on family social capital show conflicting results. Conventionally, the results of these studies can be combined around four hypotheses: 1) "Displacement hypothesis" - ICT displace direct interaction between family members and reduce the level of social capital in the family; 2) "Activation hypothesis" - ICT on the contrary contribute to the development and maintenance of relations between family members. 3) "Enrichment hypothesis" - families with inherently strong bonds and social resources benefit even more from the use of ICTs in terms of social interaction, and in families with inherently weak bonds, they will be further weakened by the use of ICTs. 4) "Social compensation hypothesis" - ICT is a kind of copping strategy that allows an individual to cope with stress due to family conflicts, low social capital, as well as to develop social interaction skills and create strong social ties for those individuals who initially did not develop these relations due to external (disability, etc.) and personal reasons (isolation, introversion, etc.). Each of the distinguished hypotheses is considered in more detail.
Differences between quantitative and qualitative methods at various levels are described. The advantages and disadvantages of these groups of methods are analyzed in relation to the process of studying the culture of the organization, it is concluded that the separate use of only one class of methods in the diagnosis of organizational culture can lead to the construction of an inadequate picture. The emergence of a strategy of “mixed methods” is quite natural phenomenon. However, the joint use of different methods in one study involves solving a number of methodological problems of their interrelation. We consider a variant of the theoretical justification that guides such studies, proposed by J. Green and her colleagues, based on which three strategies for mixing quantitative and qualitative methods in diagnosing the culture of an organization are described: triangulation, addition, and development. It is supposed that these strategies can be combined in the process of an organizational culture diagnosis in order to obtain a more complete, reliable and most relevant result.
The article provides an overview of the main directions in the studes of social capital. The theory of social capital, which came to social psychology from political sociology and emerged as a logical continuation of the theory of human capital, is currently in the process of its formation. Despite a large number of empirical studies, there are currently no common views on the structure of social capital, as well as generally accepted methods for measuring it. The phenomenology of social capital is considered at three levels: macro-, meso -, and micro-level. The article considers not only various theoretical approaches to the phenomenon of social capital, but also the advantages of having this socio-psychological resource by society. Special attention is paid to the review of research on social capital in a multicultural society. The article discusses the influence of ethnic diversity of society on its social capital, as well as the influence of various aspects of integration immigration policy on the social capital of society, which is of particular interest and relevance for multicultural Russia.
The theme of designing the future corresponds to the age tasks of older adolescents, but becomes a source of tension in families long before the children finish school. When children reach adolescence, communication is rebuilt in families, and dialogue betweenchildren and parents is often difficult. The article discusses the features of what parental statements about the future of adolescents sound in the presentation of adolescents themselves. There are described 20 typical forms of statements about the future faced by modern adolescents from their relatives, that have a different focuses — on the child, on his/her family and on the social environment. Their advantages and disadvantages and possible psychological effects are analyzed; the representation of categories of statements in groups of adolescents of different age and sex and students in different organizations is compared. The necessity of organization of constructive discussions of the future between the teenager and his social environment is proved.
This paper aims to classify career aspirations by identifying career anchors and self-monitoring for a second-year undergraduates studying at two top of range universities in St. Petersburg. The participants major in strategical professions. The study involved 202 people from the following bachelor programs: «Logistics and Supply chain management» (n=98), «Sociology» (n=92) and «Human Resource Management» (n=22). The findings illustrate that peculiarities of undergraduates’ career aspirations are possible to estimate using career anchors developed by Schein and level of self-monitoring developed by Snyder which are varied for students studying at different educational programs. The results also indicate the significant differences of career aspirations between young girls and young men at each bachelor’s program. The male groups, having the same level of self-monitoring with female ones, demonstrate some differences in career anchors.
The paper describes the types of 'dirty work' occupations and the strategies of professional identity defense in persons carrying out such activities. The paper also focuses on the psychological nature of the very phenomenon of dirty work and its social psychological matter, as well as on the problems referring to stigmatization of dirty work and to the worker's identity. It provides an insight into the cognitive and behavioural strategies of coping with dirty work.
The article describes the analysis of Western studies of collective action. Social identity, group efficiency and relative deprivation are considered as the main predictors of collective action. Models of collective action are described also. In conclusion future directions of investigations are analyzed.
Objective of the study is to investigate the specifics of coping strategies among the adolescents and the dynamics of their level of optimism in the context of the educational environment. Background. The task of life trajectory designing in a transitive society, high social variability and uncertainty, combined with a high level of pressure from parents and society, is becoming increasingly stressful. Study design. The survey was conducted in educational organizations divided into three groups depending on the position in the rating Of the Moscow Department of education (low, medium, high rating) and the strategy of employees working with the school climate (dealing with the consequences of difficult situations, a mixed strategy, emphasis on prevention). Participants. The study involved 646 adolescents. Measurements. The «Ways of Coping Checklist» by T.L. Krukova and E.V. Kuftyak (2007) and «Life Orientation Test» by T.O. Gordeeva et al. (2010) were used. Results. The results show a number of significant differences in preferred coping strategies. In the third group of schools, strategies such as «problem-solving planning», «positive reappraisal», «taking responsibility», and «self-control» are more often used. In educational organizations of the first group — «confrontation» (among younger adolescent). The opti-mism of participants from younger to older adolescents increases regardless of the group of the educational organization. Conclusions. Adolescents in different educational environments behave differently in stressful situations, and their preferred behaviors and repertoire differ. It can be assumed that different educational organizations have a different environmental response to adolescent coping behavior, which contributes to the development of different adaptive skills. These results should be taken into account in practical work with both individual adolescents and educational staff.
The article presents the results of the study of the relationship between economic nationalism and loyalty to foreign and Russian brands among Russian consumers. It was assumed that economic nationalism would be positively correlated with loyalty to domestic brands and negatively – with loyalty to foreign brands. 196 respondents aged 18 to 45 years (M = 22.51) were interviewed. Methods: 1) methodology CENTSCALE (Consumer Economic Nationalistic Trends Scale), translated into Russian and adapted, was used to assess the level of economic nationalism; 2) To measure brand loyalty, the method of N. Antonova and A. Kumar was used. The hypothesis was not confirmed. There were no significant correlations between economic nationalism and loyalty to either foreign or domestic brands. At the same time, the loyalty of Russian consumers to foreign brands is significantly higher than to domestic ones. These results suggest that the relationship between economic nationalism and consumer behavior of Russian consumers is not direct and is mediated by other factors, such as the desire for prestigious consumption, civic identity and consumer behavior, which requires further research.
Hereby the results of a study of the interrelation between different kinds of trust and objective indicators of socio-economic development of societies are presented. Aggregated results indicators of generalized and social trust of 57 countries of the world and the indicators of socio-economic development of various countries (GDP, indicator of life satisfaction, the index of quality of national business environment, the index of perceived corruption and so on) were used as empirical material. Interrelation of different types of trust with indicators of socio-economic development is quite high and statistically significant.
Objective of the study is to develop and test a methodology for assessing the degree of involvement in the use of ICT in various areas of life. Background. Modern social and physical environments are saturated with digital incentives that encourage people to get involved in interacting with these environments through information and communication technologies (ICT). However, to this date, there are no psychological instruments that comprehensively assess the involvement of individuals in the use of ICTs. Study design. The study was conducted using a socio-psychological survey. To measure involvement in the use of ICT, an authoring methodology was developed and validated. Participants. The study included two samples. The first sample included 859 respondents (average age 36.1 years; 32% of males). The second — 171 respondents (35% of males; age range from 25 to 44 years). Measurements. For data processing, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, Cronbach coefficient alpha, and correlation analysis were applied in the SPSS 19.0 and AMOS 20 programs. Results. Good results of confirmatory factor analysis indicate the presence of reliability-consistency of the methodology. The final version of the methodology includes 4 scales: “Economic actions on the Internet”, “Communication on social networks”, “Using a smartphone”, “A variety of areas of ICT use”. The empirical and external validity of this methodology was also evaluated, as a result of which we received confirmation of these types of validity from the developed methodology. Conclusions. The technique developed by the authors is reliable and valid and can be used both for research and for applied purposes.
Worldwide significant efforts are invested in building biobanks—specialized facilities for storing biological materials for research and medical purposes. The successful functioning of biobanks depends directly on people’s willingness to donate their biological materials. Fragmentary empirical studies of people’s attitudes toward donations to biobanks have been undertaken in Russia. The goal of this study was to measure attitudes toward biobank donation among Russians population and to evaluate potential sociopsychological factors that play a role in a person’s readiness to become a donor. Data from 542 students and 254 scientific staff at St. Petersburg State University were collected from group-administered paper-and-pencil and online surveys respectively. Both students (74%) and scientific staff (52%) indicated a relatively high level of readiness to become biobank donors. Regression analysis showed that refusal to be a biobahk donor was correlated significantly with being university scientific staff vs. students, no previous awareness about biobank, need for relative’s or friend’s opinion before decision making, presence of payment for donation and type of requested biological material.