Customer orientation in the emerging markets and its specifics represent a separate field within the marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to explore the real or declared nature of customer orientation of companies operating in the Russian market as an example of the emerging economy. The paper introduces the customer oriented business process original framework, developed on the basis of existing research analyses. The objective of this research is met by conducting empirical test of existence or absence of customer oriented business processes within companies. To reveal the existence or absence of customer oriented business processes, 61 indepth interviews with representatives of the companies operating in the Russian market have been conducted. The interviews have been analyzed applying a content analysis, which allows systematic study of the semantic data received from in-depth interviews. A mixed-method approach is applied to investigate in detail the specifics of customer orientation of Russian companies. The findings indicate the declared nature of customer orientation in the Russian market as the customer orientation values are often just declared by companies, but still there is a lack of customer oriented business processes needed for its real implementation. Research limitations include the limitations of the qualitative method approach. The sample of 61 companies cannot be representative for the whole general population of Russian companies. The paper provides researchers and practitioners with the insights into customer orientation specifics existing in the Russian market. This paper sheds the light on the specifics characteristics of customer orientation in the Russian market named declared customer orientation. This notion is helpful for foreign companies entering the Russian market. The previous research has shown that the customer orientation concept is not well-studied in the context of the emerging Russian market. This analysis proves that the declared but not the real nature of customer orientation exists in the Russian market.
The paper presents the results of a study on strategic SWOT analysis and discusses the features of its application to the Russian chain restaurant business. It analyzes quantitative factors affecting the application of the SWOT model, identifies and classifies the strategic problems of network-based business models in the restaurant business, conducts regression and dispersion analyses of data obtained during the survey to identify and solve problems of business process management. The results of the study are based on the works of foreign and domestic experts strategic management and discuss the development of a concept for assessing the impact of internal and external resources on managing a network enterprise. The paper offers innovative design of a quantitative analytical model of SWOT which allows both improving management processes, in companies focusing on the service market, to create additional competitive advantages and grouping the factors in terms of solving strategic problems in accordance with the strategic problems they solve. The study justifies the use of the model and identifies problem areas in management of the chain restaurant business of a small and medium scale. It allows reducing the negative impact of global factors and providing the opportunity to use the competitive advantages of the forms of network enterprises to realize both existing and emerging opportunities as well as minimizing potential threats. The empirical study involves conducting a survey among representatives of the Russian restaurant market.
This article presents the results of a research which purpose was to investigate the link between institutional features and the motivation of entrepreneurial activity on the country level. We evaluate the level of total early-stage entrepreneurial activity, and, more specifically, the share of necessity-driven entrepreneurship. Taking into account Scott’s institutional theory, we established the main factors of the institutional environment — the regulatory, normative, and cognitive pillars. The empirical analysis was conducted using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Survey for the period between 2009 and 2014; information for every country that participated in the project in that period was used in the article. Using data from various sources, such as Global Competitiveness Report, World Bank, Doing Business, Economic Freedom of the world, Hofstede’s Cultural Indicators, we identified proxy-variables for every institutional dimension of Scott’s theory. The results of our econometric analysis indicate that the regulatory, normative, and cognitive factors influence not only the level of total early-stage entrepreneurial activity, but also the share of necessity-driven entrepreneurs
The paper presents the results of neuromarketing research based on the use of neurophysiological and survey methods that are aimed to identify differences in perception of dynamic advertising content for food and non-food product categories. The role of sensory sensations in consumer behavior and the potential of neurophysiological marketing tools to observe sensory effects on the consumer are considered. The results of an empirical study conducted in the laboratory of the Neurotrend company present data on the respondents’ perception of present-day commercials. To identify differences in the perception of dynamic advertising content for the categories of food and non-food products, indicators based on neurophysiological marketing research methods (electroencephalogram records, vegetative reactions and eye movement data), as well as respondents’ evaluations of advertising materials and advertised products, were used. The most strongest contrast in respondents’ perception of food and non-food advertising were obtained in terms of Interest. This neuromarketing indicator reflects an intellectual-emotional process, i. e. a motivational state that encourages cognitive activity. The study confirms that neurophysiological methods allow us to identify differences in perception of advertising materials. This indicates the importance of sensory sensations in shaping the general consumer perception as well as prospects of neuromarketing technologies as a way to overcome a number of limitations inherent in traditional consumer research methods. The obtained results form the basis for further research, including models unveiling the dependence of the neurophysiological response on the sensory profile of the product.
Standard of business processes modeling IDEF0 (Integrated Computer-aided Manufacturing Definition) is getting widespread in the world. IDEF0 is accepted as standard in some international organizations. Special modeling software packages are developed and used actively. The authors of article propose to consider four areas, in which function modeling of business processes is applied and then to estimate efficiency of IDEF0, as a tool for decision of practical business tasks. These areas are IT-consulting and business-consulting. IT-consulting - organization of industrial processes and management optimization. Business-consulting - users’s work description (when corporate systems design) and description of functionality of Corporate Information Systems.
The paper aims to clarify the construct of brand orientation and to justify the independent place of the brand orientation concept in marketing. Despite more than 20 years of existence of brand orientation construct, relatively little research has been conducted to understand the complex nature of being brand oriented and there is still a lot of debates concerning the main characteristics that describe brand orientation and distinguish brand orientation and marketing orientation. At the same time, the meaning of the brand orientation construct is blurred and each of the existing definitions appeals to the circumstances in which the construct is analyzed. But as far there is still no definition that reflects the multidimensionality of brand orientation.
The results of the literature research show that changing market conditions, the development of the relational paradigm and the expansion of the branding functionality could be accepted as the preconditions of the brand orientation appearance. Three parts that brand orientation construct is consisted of, strategy, tactics, and instrument of measurement, are among the key findings of this study. The findings also suggest that brand orientation and market orientation are two different strategic approaches and brand orientation has its own place in the theory of marketing because it rests on the superior value of the brand and relies on brand values and brand positioning while developing company`s business strategy.
The paper aims to characterize the core theoretical framework of a concept of market orientation in the nonprofit sector. It systematizes up-to-date studies in this field and determines areas for future development. The analysis covers peer-reviewed papers from 1969 to 2015. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the theoretical concept of market orientation in non-profit organizations. Market orientation is regarded as organizational philosophy that gave rise to a certain form of organizational culture, as well as a set of behavioral norms that are consistent with the values of market-oriented organizational culture. Based on the analysis of current studies in the field of market orientation in non-profi ts, the author points out two most actively developing areas of empirical research. The first focuses on factors that aff ect the level of market orientation in non-profits. The second examines the impact of market orientation on the performance of non-profits. The paper concludes that market orientation has a positive impact on organisational performance. This result provides additional grounds to the validity of the concept of market orientation in the non-profit sector.
Purpose. The article aims to reveal how market orientation influences efficiency of Russian non-profits’ (NPO) operation. Design/ methodology/ approach. Market orientation is defined in a behavioral theoretical framework and measured by the MARKOR scale, adapted for the Russian non-profit sector. Efficiency of NPO’s operation is measured by self-reporting indicators, estimated by NPO’s CEOs. Indicators include beneficiaries’ satisfaction, organization's capacity to attract resources, and organizational reputation. The study is based on an organizational all-Russian survey (2017 г., N = 242 NPOs). Information was collected by face-to-face interviews with NPO’s CEOs using semi-formal inventory. Survey was conducted in 30 Russian regions. Findings. It was revealed that market orientation positively influences on efficiency of NPO’s operation. Market orientation on donors contributes to fundraising and increase in organizational reputation. Market orientation on beneficiaries positively influences on beneficiaries’ satisfactions and increase in reputation. It was also specified, that Russian NPOs are likely to be oriented on beneficiaries than on donors. Research limitations/ implications. The research has number of limitations: only one type of NPOs was examined, i.e. foundations; results are based on self-reporting measurement, that is a subject to subjective estimations; CEOs are the only representatives of an NPO, excluding any other employees; absence of longitudinal survey data. Main directions for future studies relate to examination of relation between market orientation and efficiency of other types of NPOs; combination of assessment made by CEOs and other employees; conduction of longitudinal studies. Practical issues of market orientation introduction into NPO’s operation should also gain future consideration. Practical implications. Application of the suggested framework might estimate a degree of market orientation of a particular NPO. Originality/ value. The study is a step forward theoretical and empirical conceptualization of the marker orientation and its influence on NPO’s efficiency in Russia.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the relation between career choice and generational differences in order to understand the professional nature for various age groups. It also offers suggestions for how to estimate career choice using career anchors developed by E. Schein, and level of self-monitoring developed by M. Snyder. The paper reviews the literature on career anchors, self-monitoring and theory of generation. It also considers their roles for career choice. Our analysis was conducted using two samples, one of undergraduates studying Management for a second academic year and one of employees working in two Russian companies. All participants were divided into age groups in line with the theory of generations. Career Orientation Inventory developed by Schein and Self-Monitoring Scale developed by Snyder were used to evaluate the career choice. The study applies factor analysis that separates the leading career anchors for each age group. The findings illustrate differences in attitudes towards career choice across generations. Generation Y both employees and undergraduates demonstrates high self-monitors and role expectations as key professional activities. Generation X displays preferences to managerial commitment and independence. Baby Boomers is only one generation that demonstrates technical/functional competence as a core career anchor. Generation Y both employees and undergraduates show more similarities than differences in self-monitoring and career orientations thereby proving particular postulates of theory of generation. Research limitations include the boundaries of quantitative method. The sample of 240 participants cannot be representative for the whole Russian population. The limited quantity of research, focusing on differences in career choice across generations in Russia, outlines the importance of future investigations and these findings could be a base for the next studies in this field. Practical implications of these findings is to add potentially major insight into organizations for selecting and training of the staff that take into account career needs of employees relating to age (generation). Career management practices in the company should accommodate the differences in career orientations and how these relate to the organizational needs. Value of the findings is to provide extra opportunities for HR experts in the development of effective career management programme taking into consideration individual characteristics of personnel.
The search for and training of employees suitable for the company’s strategic goals and values
is a lengthy and costly process. Therefore, organizations are ready to make eff orts to retain the
most valuable employees, on whom the company’s profit largely depends. The retention of creative specialists increases the capacity of an organization, and creation of working conditions that stimulate creativity and activate thinking, provides generation of new ideas that can become the basis of company’s competitiveness. This pаper presents an analysis of specific features of the staff retention process in creative industries in the context of the theory of generations. The investigation formulated the hypothesis that the retention factors in creative industries are different from those in a non-creative sector. The study is based on the empirical sample derived from the results of 7 interviews with managers of creative industries and a survey of 53 creative workers of generation Y. As a result of a comparative analysis of major international research, and also interviews with managers of creative industries, a number of factors were identified that affect the retention of employees from the creative class of generation Y. The use of the t-criterion for comparing independent samples (creative workers and sales workers) partially confirmed the hypothesis. The study also revealed that managers’ views about the factors of retaining creative employees differ from those of creative workers themselves.
Russian universities are eager to strengthen their competitiveness on Russian and foreign markets via promoting and developing universities’ brands. Evaluation of universities’ current brand position is one of the key strategic goals for Russian universities. Th e purpose of this study is to develop the set of 23 brand personality traits for brand evaluation of Russian uni versities. According to design of the study, one hundred and ninety eight students and graduates evaluated three brands of competitive Russian universities from a large Russian city (Nizhny Novgorod) by the set of personality traits. Based on evaluations, three factors of brand personality for surveyed Russian universities: «Trendy», «Expert», «Outgoing» were found. Th e study utilized a limited sample. Future studies should include more universities from other Russian cities for generalization of research fi ndings. Brand personalities of three Russian universities were evaluated and compared through identifi ed factors. Applications of observed traits and factors exist in fi elds of strategic brand management, positioning and promotion of Russian universities.
In this article the system of companies’ relationships with partners is investigated through the lenses of the portfolio theory approach and the results of this analysis are introduced; also the definition of relationship portfolio is given and the main models of building relationship portfolios with buyers and suppliers are explored. The system of criteria for building relationships portfolio was developed after the analysis of these models and then was sample tested with the data from the empirical research of the 223 Russian companies operating in b2b markets.