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Of all publications in the section: 50
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Article
Голубков А. В. Новый филологический вестник. 2016. № 39. С. 118-125.

The article deals with development of ideas about “précieuses” in French literature and culture of 1610–1650s  The word combination “precious woman” as symbol of moral and corporal purity begins to be used in France accord a thank to popular exemplary novel of M. Cervantes “The little Gipsy Girl”. In spite of the fact that in the 1630–1640s this word is actively popularized in the Parisian salons, in the Salons poetry and prose. From the middle of the 1650s the increase of negative attitude to this social phenomenon realized in Molière’s play “Les Précieuses ridicules” (1659) is noticeable. 

Added: Oct 14, 2019
Article
Бочкарев А. Е. Новый филологический вестник. 2018. Т. 45. № 2. С. 84-93.

The article is devoted to exploring the paremic locution one cannot cut the dough with an axe as a rolled-up narrative program in Nikolai Leskov’s story “An Iron Will” (1876). In this way, different images of dough and iron become particularly important as soon as they begin to be perceived as symbolic analogues of some notable properties of national character: a German will (‘iron’) and a Russian lack of will (‘dough’). First of all, this is the pie with carrots as well as the pancakes that killed Hugo Karlovich Pectoralis, “a man of iron will”, at Safronych’s funeral. One can disclose their content only within the context of the specified paremic locution in a serial analogy German : Russian :: will : lack of will :: iron : dough. Technically, there is no valid analogy between ‘iron’ and ‘will’, ‘dough’ and ‘lack of will’, as well as the resulting “standoff” between a German will and a Russian lack of will, but in fact this is not necessary. No matter how parodoxically it may seem, but as an argument in favor of the Russian lack of will paroemia reveals the property of dough to resist to an ax; as an illustrative contribution to the status of a regrettable precedent, a “real” story, told over tea, about Hugo Karlovich Pectoralis choking to death while eating pancakes. Therefore, in Nikolai Leskov’s story the specified paremic locution operates as a sort of “text-in-the-text”, as well as its potential narrative program or its summary.

Added: Jul 14, 2018
Article
Гельфонд М. М., Мухина А. А. Новый филологический вестник. 2019. № 4(51). С. 269-281.

The article is devoted to the reception of Anton Chekhov’s short stories “Holy Night”, “Student” and “Bishop” in Boris Pasternak’s cycle “Poems of Yuri Zhivago”. The testimonies of contemporaries about Pasternak’s attention to them is an important, but not yet sufficient, basis for asserting an interconnection. The article attempts to read Yuri Zhivago’s cycle on the background of three Chekhov’s stories united 270 Новый филологический вестник. 2019. №4(51). 271 by the Easter story and the chronotope. In the first part of the article, the concept of the “terrible gap” (Pasternak), the existence of the earth without Christ, is examined in the stories by Chekhov and the poems by Pasternak. Here the similarities of particular moments are noted: the feeling of emptiness experienced by nature, the touch that returns faith in possibility to overcome death. Next, Pasternak’s poem “Holy week” is considered in comparison with Chekhov’s story “Holy Night”. It is shown that their common motifs – night gloom, stars, anxiety, sleep and the awakening of the earth, bell ringing, tears – are caused not so much by the unity of realities as by Pasternak’s deliberate address to Chekhov. The poem “The Garden of Gethsemane” is compared with the story “Student” on the basis of the general subject of the image – Jesus’ last night on earth, and is shown that the impact on Chekhov’s story in Pasternak’s poem turns out to be more significant than the original Gospel. It is possible to speak about the influence of Nicholas image in the “Holy Night”’s characters on Yuri Zhivago and his uncle Nikolai Vedenyapin but with a somewhat lesser degree of confidence. A lot of particular coincidences between the poems in Yuri Zhivago’s cycle and Chekhov’s stories testify to the proximity of Chekhov’s and Pasternak’s worldview, in particular, the system of historiosophical views, in which the Gospel is the starting point of human existence, and immortality is seen as the ultimate goal.

Added: Jan 13, 2020
Article
Цветкова М. В. Новый филологический вестник. 2020. Т. 2 . № 53. С. 345-353.

The article is devoted to translation from the point of view of intercultural reception in the context of which traditional labels given to translations in translation 346 Новый филологический вестник. 2020. №2(53). 347 studies like “true”, “adequate”, “equivalent” and most of all “good” or “bad” become out of place. In the process of translation, transformations caused by the specificity of the language material of the source and the target cultures, by the individuality of the translator and his creative police as well as the difference between national worldviews and literary traditions always occur. In the article, it is suggested to view translation from this perspective on material of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Emigrant” and its translation into English by Christopher Whyte. Close parallel reading of these two texts shows the transformations which happened to the original poem vividly enough. Though Whyte’s translation cannot be classified as a loose one, the central idea of the original is changed completely: the translation is not about poet as an alien who came from other worlds but about an emigrant in the proper sense of the word. Such transformation looks quite natural in the context of contemporary Britain where the discussions about peculiar to the British xenophobia have been recently intensified more and more. “Domestication” of Tsvetaeva’s poem is also dictated by the creative policy of the translator, who intentionally universalizes the feelings of the speaker. An important role in the transformations is played by the language material: the key words of the original, even though translated by the close English equivalents, have been transformed as the result of the difference of the semantic fields they belong to and connotations they have.

Added: Sep 2, 2020
Article
Земскова Е. Е. Новый филологический вестник. 2016. № 4 (39). С. 167-177.

The article deals with the position of the Soviet literary criticism to the interpreters with the languages of the national republics in the period of occurrence, and the active development of the state order for this type of literary work. On the material of literary periodical publications in the mid-1930s considered the strategy of “translation quality” control in criticism. The article analyzes the representation to the merits and demerits of translation work in Soviet critics, in the context of ideology, and in connection with the artistic translation strategy. For example in critics relation to N. Tikhonov’s and Boris Pasternak’s translations from Georgian poets is traced the strategy of creating “best translators” images, that were necessary for the proper functioning of the multinational Soviet literature.

Added: Apr 15, 2016
Article
Шулятьева Д. В. Новый филологический вестник. 2021. № 1. С. 240-254.
Added: Sep 27, 2021
Article
Забережная О. А. Новый филологический вестник. 2020. № 2 (53). С. 308-318.

The prose of the Japanese writer Shiga Naoya (1881–1972), the author of I-novel (shisho:setsu), is popular in Japan, but for the Western reader the value of his texts remains unclear. In order to solve this problem we suggest applying the methodology of the phenomenological school to analyzing the Shiga’s texts. The vast layer of the Japanese experience in studying the texts of Shiga, where the researchers unintentionally resorted to the methodology of the phenomenological school, leads to the thought of this. In particular, we consider it promising to apply this methodology to the analysis of the “rhythm” concept, which we suppose is the key concept to understanding Shiga’s texts. “Rhythm” as the main artistic principle of Shiga, apparently, means the maximum proximity of the rhythmic organization of the text to the physiological rhythm of the writer himself. The suitability of phenomenological criticism, in particular, of the Geneva school, to Shiga’s texts is explained by the following features: the critique of consciousness considers only phenomena revealed in the mind, which for literary studies means studying only the world of the work, its structures and meanings; lack of reference to the society surrounding the author, or any ideological premise; the study of the individual consciousness of the writer, his experimental series, the selection of repetitive motifs, images (“patterns”) of consciousness, unique to a particular author, the interpretation by E. Steiger of “rhythm” as one of such patterns. Following are some preliminary conclusions obtained in the analysis of Shiga’s works based on the above methodology. In Shiga’s prose, recurring motifs or “patterns” of consciousness are “mood” (kibun), as well as a pleasant or unpleasant feeling (yukai-fuyukai), since it is obvious that the actions of most of his characters are explained precisely by the factor of sensation and mood. Also, recurring motifs can be called “emptiness”, that is, the absence of one’s own inner world and “harmony”, that is, the correspondence of one’s own “rhythm” and “rhythm” of the surrounding nature. If the “rhythm” itself is also considered to be the “pattern” of Shiga’s consciousness, repeated from work to work, it becomes possible to explain why the beauty of Shiga’s texts is so dependent on the original language. In general, we believe that the application of the methodology of phenomenological critique of consciousness to the works of Shiga Naoya is a promising direction that requires further research.

Added: Jun 10, 2020
Article
Пронина Т. Д. Новый филологический вестник. 2014. № 3 (30). С. 96-104.
Added: Mar 1, 2017
Article
Большухин Л. Ю., Александрова М. А. Новый филологический вестник. 2010. № №4(15). С. 41-55.
Added: Dec 13, 2016
Article
Гельфонд М. М. Новый филологический вестник. 2017. № 4(43). С. 70-83.

The article is devoted to the poem by E.A. Boratynsky “Piroskaph” in its metric and genre context. The analysis of the formal and content structure of the “Piroskaph” allows to see significant echoes of odes by G.R. Derzhavin, the ballad by V.A. Zhukovsky “God’s judgment of the Bishop”, and also the works by P.A. Katenin, A.P. Benicky and other poets of late 18 – early 19 centuries. Complex correlation between different genre elements in “Piroskaph” allows specifying the representation of genre and the nature of late lyrics by E.A. Boratynsky

Added: Jan 11, 2018
Article
Гельфонд М. М. Новый филологический вестник. 2020. № 3(54). С. 181-194.

The article considers Nekrasov’s reminiscences in the novel “Doctor Zhivago” by B.L. Pasternak. Despite the fact that Pasternak never referred to Nekrasov as to a poet important to him, Zhivago wrote in his diary of Nekrasov’s three-syllabic meters and dactylic rhymes as expressions of “the rhythms of Russia speaking”. This mention sets a number of significant parallels between the novel and Nekrasov’s poem “Frost, Red Nose”, which are revealed at different levels, such as those of character, motive and plot. For instance, the nekrasovian grandeur of a woman is dissolved in Lara’s appearance and character traits, thus preparing for matching the images of Lara and Russia. No less important are the plot parallels associated with the image of a funeral and a lament for the dead. Daria’s deathbed visions – of struggling with advancing rye ears and of expecting a baby – are echoed in the final chapters of the novel. The novel, as well as the poem, are both framed by two deaths, with the circumstances of Lara’s death clearly correlating with Nekrasov’s Daria freezing down in the forest. It is shown that Nekrasov’s poem reveals the significant meanings of the novel and is included in its subtext.

Added: Nov 12, 2020
Article
Гельфонд М. М. Новый филологический вестник. 2016. № 2(37). С. 98-110.

Abstract. The article tackles the problem of Pushkin’s biographical myth in the poetry of David Samoilov. The main thesis is that Samoilov’s position is a consistent repulsion on official Pushkin’s mythology of the Soviet epoch. In particular, Samoilov does not accept and rethinks some elements of it, such as the initiation by “old Derzhavin”, spiritual and ideological affinity to the Decembrists, poet-prophet and poet-victim. Overcoming of Pushkin’s myth in Samoilov’s poetry is formed by two ways. The first way is the recognition of Pushkin through the historical experience of Samoilov’s generation; the second is associated with the individual understanding of Pushkin, based on the documents and his works.

Added: Jul 6, 2016
Article
Закроева Г. А. Новый филологический вестник. 2021. № 3.

The memoir novel by V. S. Baevsky has incorporated previously published autobiographical stories and essays. At the same time, the “Novel of One Life” is a single mnemonic narrative, in the center of which is the image of a scientist. “The Novel of one Life” is an autobiographical narrative, the unifying core of which is the image of the narrator and his story. The autobiographical narrator connects all levels of the mnemonic text, as it combines a specific author, narrator, and hero. The narrative of the memoir novel implements the narrative strategy of life description, and the probabilistic picture of the world is formed from the description of real historical events and the trials that the hero overcomes. The novel creates a time of memory, where the past is not only inextricably linked with the present, but also continues in it. The center of the narrative strategy is the narrator. The memoirist in the image narratora combined category of a particular author, the “I” – telling me –and telling. In “The Novel of One Life” the story and image of the narrator are formed on the basis of personal documents: the author's diary and correspondence with poets and scientists. The author's attitude to the documentality of history also testifies to the objectification of the narrative. Despite the autobiography, stylistically, the narrative is based on distancing the narrator from the specific author. One of the most important components of the image of the narrator in the “The Novel of One Life” is an attempt to escape from the egocentric narrative characteristic of autobiography. The dominant feature of the narrator is the lyrical beginning, the feeling of being a lyric poet.

Added: Apr 6, 2021
Article
Туляков Д. С. Новый филологический вестник. 2018. Т. 44. № 1. С. 275-283.
Added: Dec 7, 2017
Article
Мостовая В. Г. Новый филологический вестник. 2020. № 2. С. 268-279.

Apollonius Rhodius, the poet of the III century B.C., was one of the reformers of the traditional heroic poetry. The centre stage scene of the poem “Argonautica” is dedicated to a rape of the golden fleece. This scene is centered on the genesis and the growth of the Medea’s love to Jason rather than on the description of heroes and battles. The lyric and magic plots (the final one is being narrated by the author) is not the only difference that differentiates this poem from Homeric poetry. Meanwhile in the Homeric poems the lyric and magic plots are usually narrated by heroes. The poem “Argonautica” exhibits traits of cycilic and didactic epics. The simile is a typical narrative device of Apollonius, inherited from Homer. The article examines the changes in the language and structure of the similes from Homer to Apolloniues. Vocabulary renovation from non-homeric and homeric sources and its vivification as well as variations of the homeric formula correspond to all style transformations. The changes in the objects of similes, images of similes and signs of simile, the application of the simile in the non-heroic and marine scenes and for the description of the senses match the new gusts of the epoch and the interests towards the inner world and the extraordinary as well as magic. The similes not only mark a new theme, but also play an important role in the character characterization and take subjective air to the voice of the narrator. Due to numerous allusions to Homer, the reader perceives the dialog and polemic of Apollonius with his predecessor.

Added: Oct 22, 2019
Article
Пронина Т. Д. Новый филологический вестник. 2014. № 23 (4). С. 115-124.
Added: Mar 1, 2017
Article
Цветкова М. В. Новый филологический вестник. 2019. Т. 1. № 48. С. 250-260.

мммммммммThe article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia. The article dwells upon a comparative analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “Longing for the Motherland” and its three English translations performed by Elaine Feinstein, David McDuff, and Christopher Whyte. The novelty of the approach is based on pinpointing the transformations performed by the translators, exploring their reasons and describing their influence on the main idea of the original. The comparative analyses of the original and its three versions have shown that all the three translators are trying to be as close to the original as possible but in each version Tsevetaeva’s poem is seriously transformed. The transformations concern all those aspects which constitute the specific nature of the original text: national and individual concepts, syntax, phonosemantics, metre, rhythm, punctuation, intonation. The concepts “longing for the motherland” and “motherland” appeared to be especially difficult for translation. The recoding of these concepts to the language of the target culture utterly changed the main idea of the poem in the versions by Whyte and Feinstein. The original is based on an attempt of the persona of the poem to persuade herself that she, in spite of her Russian nature, does not feel any nostalgia. In Feinstain’s version, the persona’s emotions are “translated” into the language of the British culture: the longing for coming back to the place, where you were born, where your kin come from, where the people you belong to live, give way to homesickness. Whyte highlights in the persona the universal character of her feelings, showing the tragic restlessness of an emigrant deprived of her home and her hearth. In the version by MacDuff, which converted Tsvetaeva’s idea most closely, the very fact of recoding “тоска по родине” (longing for the Motherland) into another language deprives it of all the emotions so special about the Russian nostalgia.

Added: Apr 17, 2019
Article
Земскова Е. Е. Новый филологический вестник. 2015. № 4 (35). С. 70-84.

The paper focuses on the key event in the history of soviet literary translation under Stalin, the rst all-union conference of translators hold in early January 1936 in Moscow. This important cultural event is discussed referring to previously unknown archival document, the almost complete transcript of the conference containing the debates on the plenaries reports. Basing on this transcript the paper aims to analyze the ideological context of soviet translator’s strategies to defend their methods of “accurate” and “free” translation. 

 

Added: Apr 28, 2014