Sustainable development of society is one of the goals of the millennium, which is impossible without progress in the field of eradicating hunger. According to estimates of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in 2015 about 792.5 million people suffered from chronic hunger. The vast majority of the hungry lived in developing countries, where 60% of child deaths were due to reduced body weight. The level of child malnutrition continues to grow in many African countries. The work explores the problems of child malnutrition in Africa, modeling its contributing factors according to data of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for the period 1991-2014 Panel cointegration models made it possible to obtain estimates of long-term relationships. This is particularly important in the analysis and monitoring of long-term investment programs in Africa. Initially, all countries were divided into three clusters, differing in socio-economic development. The most unfavorable situation was in the countries of the first cluster, with low per capita GDP and a prevalence of childhood anemia (as a measure of hidden hunger) at 68.9%. Further modeling of long-term trends was carried out for the first cluster countries. The analysis showed that a long-term relationship exists between the prevalence of anemia among children (as a measure of hidden hunger), access to improved sources of drinking water, the seriousness of the food deficit, the population and the cost of food imports in total exports of goods.
The processes of modernization are the central research topic of the social sciences. As R. Nisbet noted, the main interest of modern sociology lies in the study of the processes of transition from a closed, hierarchical society to an open, achievement-oriented one. The most important aspect of modernization is the shift in the principles of social regulation from prohibitions imposed externally towards personal freedom and responsibility. One of the behavioral spheres where such shifts are most noticeable is that of sexual relations. In modern societies, sexual pleasure and satisfaction are recognized as important elements of private life that have the right to exist as such, and not only as a necessary condition for procreation. The article analyzes the dynamics of attitudes of Russians in the field of sexual relations, a comparative country analysis is conducted.
The article presents for the first time an analysis of the continuous statistical data series on deaths from road accidents in Russia since 1956. The total number of deaths for 1956-2012 exceeded 1.4 million. The increase in mortality from traffic accidents started in the 1970s; since the beginning of the 1990s the lag behind most developed countries has been growing. At 2012 mortality levels about 85-95% of Russia’s deaths from road accidents were excessive compared with the number of deaths that would have occurred at age-specific mortality rates from this cause in selected European countries. Both the current characteristics of the general level of motorization and the main indicators of traffic injuries, such as the number of deaths per 100 thousand persons, per 10 thousand vehicles or per number of kilometers traveled, show that in terms of transport development Russia lags 40-50 years behind Western countries. The article also examines the history of the inclusion of mortality from road accidents in the International Classification of Causes of Death (ICD) and the problems of reflecting this mortality in Russian mortality statistics. Gender-specific features and trends in Russian mortality from traffic accidents are analyzed, as well as the differences in mortality for different categories of road users (drivers, passengers and pedestrians) for the maximum possible time period. International comparisons that allow understanding the extent of Russian backwardness and seeing the long-term unsustainable trends in mortality from road accidents are presented. A conclusion is made concerning the need to expand research into the problems of road safety, indispensable for developing effective programs that enhance safety and for catching up with the many countries ahead of Russia
The article looks at key approaches to population health and disability analysis. It demonstrates the fruitfulness of the “modern” conception of disability understood as restrictions on daily life activities due to health problems, and proposes instruments for measuring public health and disabilities in Russia based on international experience using the census and census-based surveys. Specifically, it applies WHO and UN recommendations to the micro-census of 2015 to develop tools for getting more detailed and useful information on disability than is currently available.
The article analyzes the dynamics and structure of deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents in Russia during 2006 to 2011. The analysis is based on the use of integrated indicators of years of life lost. It is shown that the maximum number of years of life lost due to excess mortality and disability (or gained from their elimination) is observed for men in the age group from 40 to 65 years, and for women between 55 and 75 years. New metrics of disability weights are developed.
This paper investigates the use of the United Nations World Population Policies Database for research on internal migration policy. Internal migration is more extensive and, perhaps, even more significant for the economic, political, social and cultural development of society than international migration. Internal migration policy is not always singled out as an independent factor, but is generally treated as a part of other types of policies.
In order to summarize the experience of different countries, conduct international comparisons and identify regional and global tendencies in the implementation of policies on internal migration, the World Population Policy Database can be used. The database contains regularly updated information on the situation and trends in the implementation of population policy for all UN member states and some other territories. The main source of information is the official responses of the governments of these countries and territories to regularly distributed inquiries of the UN Population Division.
The database provides access to information about population policy and some demographic and socio-economic indicators from 1976 to 2015. The web interface makes it possible to create maps and graphs and to download datasets of policy data in the Excel format, and also contains sections with the latest publications that use the database and useful links (including links to other demographic databases). At the same time, it should be noted that the potential of the database on population policy for Russian studies on internal migration has not been adequately exploited.
The problem of motor vehicle injuries in Russia nowadays is a common topic of discussion. Motor vehicle accidents as a cause of death are among the most significant causes of premature mortality in Russia. Motor vehicle accidents, the cause of 26,977 deaths in 2013, are an important public health problem, the leading cause of death among young working-age people. In addition to these deaths, annually about 250 thousand people are seriously injured and need hospital treatment. This puts a serious burden on the healthcare system, which must provide medical care for injuries while at the same time solving other priority problems. This paper is devoted to an analysis of the statistical sources of information about road traffic accidents in Russia. The author analyzes Russian and international approaches to the organization of statistics about road traffic accidents. An evaluation is presented of the undercounting of road traffic accidents with injured people and the underestimation of its impact in Russia. Recommendations are made on how to record and compare information from different sources about road traffic accidents.
On the basis of an international survey, the article analyzes the health and well-being of the elderly (55+) of different religious background in 14 European countries. Religious affiliation and activity are shown to have an insignificant influence on the health of the elderly both within European countries on the whole and within Western and Eastern countries separately. It is concluded that country origin is more significant than religious affiliation and activity.