Vladimir Magun and Maxim Rudnev present the data of international comparative European Social Survey in 2006-2007 analyzing the values of Russian population in comparison with those of the inhabitants of 19 European countries. An average Russian as compared to the inhabitants of other countries is characterized by a higher caution (or even fear) and the need in protection by powerful State, the needs in novelty, creativity, freedom and independence are less expressed in average Russians, they are less inclined to taking risks and striving for merriment and pleasures. In terms of the importance of the enumerated values average Russians are like representatives of a number of other countries, primarily post-socialist ones. They aspire to wealth and power, as well as to personal success and social recognition (but creativity and innovation are less important for them). Strong orientation to individual self-assertion leaves in the consciousness of these people, as compared to the representatives of other countries, less space for concerning about equality and justice, tolerance, nature, for taking care of the close people (lower significance of the indicators of «universalism» and «goodwill»).
The article is devoted to the problem of indi- vidual income mobility of Russians in both objec- tive and subjective dimensions. The empirical base for the research is drawn from the Russia Longitu- dinal Monitoring Survey - Higher School of Eco- nomics (RLMS HSE), waves 2014-2017. Following the logic of the relative (positional) income mobil- ity, used, inter alia, in the recently published OECD report, but adapting it to the realities of modern Russian society, the authors turn to the analysis of the scale and directions of individual mobility be- tween income quintiles over a four-year interval. The composition of the groups that remain steadily in the least and most prosperous income positions (“sticky floor” and “sticky ceiling”) is also in focus. A similar logic of analysis is then applied to subjec- tive income mobility — changes in self-evaluation of one’s position on the poverty-wealth scale. The results show that the scale of income mobil- ity in Russian society is quite high, which is more typical for the countries undergoing periods of transformation. Income mobility opportunities are influenced by factors of both class and non-class nature, and the high importance of ascriptive fac- tors for sustainable well-being or continuous pov- erty requires the attention of the state. A subjective assessment of the position on the income scale is even more volatile, with subjective income mobil- ity weakly correlating with income mobility. In the most disadvantaged state in the realm of objective income mobility are families with children, and in the realm of subjective income mobility — pen- sioners with multiple chronic diseases. At the same time, none of the socio-demographic categories can be unambiguously defined as a zone of localization of immobility by income or self-evaluation, since the situation of individuals belonging to them can qualitatively differ depending on a unique combina- tion of life circumstances.
The article analyzes various aspects of aging. Increased social vulnerability is a tough reality of older ages, but developed societies have learned to create conditions for "successful aging". Unfortunately, the circumstances of the life of Russian seniors cannot be called comfortable. Russians meet old age not protected either from the point of view of health, nor from the point of view of material circumstances. The health care system is unreliable, the majority do not believe that it will be able to get the necessary help when it is needed. The existing pension system does not provide material well-being, and limited resources at working age do not allow making the necessary savings that provide a comfortable life in the elderly. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of horizontal links that could dampen the rigidity of social circumstances. Social actors of older age place themselves at the lowest levels of the social ladder. Life in Russian society does not allow one to accumulate and convert resources, for the majority it's not an achievement, but a loss of youth's expectations.
The study concerns the process of business partners’ selection in the relationships of freelancers and their clients. As this process looks like an empirical realization of the model of perfect competition social ties and institutions are expected to play unimportant role. Nevertheless the findings demonstrate that the relationships of freelancers and their clients are socially embedded. This embeddedness reduces uncertainty and prevents opportunism in the field of self-employment. The research is based on the empirical data collected at the beginning of the 2010th. More than 1200 managers of different companies were questioned in 2010 and more than 7000 contract workers filled in a questionnaire in 2011 at the web-site Freelance.ru. Although price, quantity and quality are very important for both companies and freelancers recommendations and previous experience of making business with each other also play a key role in the process of contractors’ selection. Social ties and institutions make business partners’ behavior predictable and that is why market actors do not rely only on the forces of competition
This article is focused on the media construction of the recent economic crisis in Russia.
The goal of the study is achieved conducting the content analysis. 285 articles of the most cited Russian online newspapers of different information orientation (socio-political, business and mass online newspapers) were analyzed in total.
It was found that the coverage of the economic crisis in online newspapers is due to the focus on a specific audience. The socio-political newspaper publishes more articles on alternatives of ways out of the crisis and stabilization of the economy. The business media, focused on business leaders, analysts and experts, tend to cover such crisis consequence as change in the situation of the Russian industry and the private sector. Finally, the hallmark of the mass newspaper is anti-crisis advice to the public and partnership materials.
Favorite Authors, Favorite Books: What Do Young People Read Today (Based on Analysis of VKontakte Network)
The article contains an analysis of Russia`s modern day youth reading preferences based on the data regarding books and reading found in Vkontakte network profiles of young people (aged 17-23), residents of 34 towns of varying size. Only 9% of the young network users provide such information about themselves which is much less than the data of favorite music and films. This means that for the greater part of the youth reading is not a major or substantial means of representation in a reference group and the value of reading in general is low. All in all of the profiles mention over 1500 authors and almost 5000 literary works, when over a quarter of all mentions falling on 10 authors, and over a half on 50. This is the circle of authors relatively popular among the youth. The top 20 popular authors are practically identical in towns of varying populace size including Moscow; the structure of reading preferences varies very little be major group. Contemporary foreign literature, Russian classics, foreign fantasy and sci-fi, 20th century literature are in the lead. The only thing differentiating young people from towns of varying sizes is the interest in translated 20th century literature. The larger the city the greater the interest in such literature and vice versa – the smaller the town the more mentions of foreign and especially Russian fantasy works there are.
Young people from towns of varying size share not only the same circle of most popular authors but a lack of interest in contemporary Russian prose and poetry as well. Despite the frequent mentions of the Russian classics the value of which is established in school, only Dostoevsky and Tolstoy are represented equally among the youngest – recent high-school graduates – and the oldest. The rest (Pushkin, Gogol, Lermontov) get mentioned less with more time passing since graduation. Differences in authors important for the reading youth in general and in more advanced part, especially Moscow students, have been determined. An analysis of types of communication of modern day youngsters with the most and the least value-heavy groups of literature – Russian classics and fantasy – has been performed as well.
The article is devoted to the social problems associated with the development of one of the contradictory treatments of modern medicine - the donation and transplantation of human organs. The progress of human organ donation is crucially dependent on public approval which intensifies the shortfall of donor organs.
According to theoretical work of sociologists and economists, both of the two main organ procurement systems - market and altruistic – have certain qualifications. The first one transforms human body into commodity and leads to body exploitation. The second results in long waiting lists and brings up the threat of a black market trade.
Results of the national survey conducted by the Levada-Center in March 2013 show that the organ donation in Russia is characterized by immaturity of cultural beliefs about organ donation. The Russians have low awareness of the problem of organ shortage and are not really willing to become a donor regardless of the form of donations (market or altruistic). The author point at the lack of solidarity in Russian society manifested in a high propensity to become an organ donor for a close family member and low willingness to become a posthumous donor to an anonymous patient.