A major methodological challenge in study of empires and civilizations is the application of both terms to conceptualize highly divergent phenomena from specific facts and practices to general mental constructions like a mission of a civilization of imperial form of government. Conceptual research tools should be ranged according to the levels of generalization. Thus, the most abstract instrument of morphological analysis is imperial form. Imperial formulae are its configurations that apply to various geopolitical and historical conjunctures. Finally, specific orders help to conceptualize the factual tissue of civilizations and empires. Morphology of open and closed systems is also considered as a relevant conceptual tool. Notions of open and limited access orders is critically reappraised.
Reinterpretation of approaches of John Locke, Immanuel Kant and Charles Peirce helps to single out three integral organons of cognition. One is mathematics, or cognition of measure and art of all kind of measurement. Another is morphology or cognition of forms and art of arranging shapes and configurations. One more is semiotics or cognition of meanings and art of their transfer. It is demonstrated that all three organons vary and provide specific fields of knowledge and areas of research. Current versions and varieties of disciplinary manifestations of organons are reviewed. Mathematics is the most developed complex of scientific disciplines. Morphology is a constellation of a number of assorted and fully independent disciplines. Semiotics is rifted by a gap between rough outline of general or «pure» semiotics (Morris) and a nebula of unevenly elaborated semiologies of various sorts – that of languages, literatures, cinema, heraldry, race discrimination or ideological manipulations. Analysis of political discourses and speech acts can contribute to integration of common area of semiotic research.
This article aims to examine the Soviet nationalities policy as a unique phenomenon that has a certain logic and content. Authors identify several major periods of nationalities policy and apply the “pendulum” concept claiming the existence of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ waves. This argument is tested using data of official Soviet statistics in three dimensions: republic’s administrative status, cadre policy and cultural-language policy. Their findings reveal the relationship between change in nationalities policy and focus of this policy. The study contributes to better understanding of reasons of political mobilization among the ethnic lines in the USSR in 1980-90s
The article discusses methodological solutions to the “n = 1” problem, otherwise known as a sui generis problem in the study of the EU that seemingly leads to inability to conduct comparative research. Yet, engagement of the EU scholars both with comparative politics and new regionalism has produced a surge in number of articles based on comparative method. Research investigation into four academic journals shows that this trend is distinctive of English-language journals but not of the Russian ones.
The sample of third wave democracies was used to test if parliamentarianism fosters democratic consolidation. Elaborated by Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan concept of five arenas suggests a more fine approach to the complex phenomenon of regime consolidation. Operating consolidation according to this template could help explain the reverse transformation in new democracies. Research results partly support the original idea, but diversity in the third wave democracies warns against more definite confirmation.
The article covers basic themes in the conceptual analysis of power: main stages (early, classical, modern), conceptual problems (actual power vs potential power, power as structures vs agents, «power to» vs «power over», intentionality of power, asymmetrical vs balanced power, conflict and ‘zero sum’) and their solutions, current trends in the conceptual analysis of power (multidimensional view of power, synthesis of different approaches, expansion of the concept, blurring the borders between power and non-power) and their practical consequences.
The article analyses quantitative and qualitative characteristics of media representations of “politilogists”, “economists” and “historians” in 10 Russian newspapers over a year. On the basis of the Russian Scientific Quotation Index the author compares publication profiles of the persons who are ascribed the respective identity in mass media and professional journals.
The article considers the problem of conceptualization of legitimacy. While being one of the fundamental concepts of political analysis, «legitimacy» describes the relationships of power, political order, regime, individual institutions, etc. The article argues for the relevance of studying the practice of decisions, actions, policy legitimation, proves the need to distinguish between «legitimation» and «justification» of policies, proposes their conceptualization.
The article analyzes the evolution of methods for the study of ideologies. The author demonstrates the limitations of the behavioral approach that has dominated in the 1950-1970. Development of critical discourse analysis discussed in the article as an opportunity to overcome this limitation. Special attention is directed to the contextual models of analysis of ideologies that allow for the variation in the values of ideological concepts, depending on the context. Highly evaluated the future of anthropological approach based on the theory of memes.
The article discusses the strategy of «mixing» methods, particularly prevalent in the Western research tradition. Covers the methods of text analysis, demonstrated the difference between formal or approach on the example of the study of the image of modern Russia in the texts of the American edition of «New York Times», where attention is paid to algorithms work with texts. It is shown that for the study of such phenomena as the image of the country, the combination of formal or approaches to the analysis of the text is a necessary and natural research phenomenon.