Russia has a large HIV epidemic, but medical care engagement is low. Eighty HIV-positive persons in St. Petersburg completed in-depth interviews to identify barriers and facilitators of medical HIV care engagement. The most commonly-reported barriers involved difficulties accessing care providers, dissatisfaction with the quality of services, and negative attitudes of provider staff. Other barriers included not having illness symptoms, life stresses, low value placed on health, internalized stigma and wanting to hide one's HIV status, fears of learning about one's true health status, and substance abuse. Care facilitators were feeling responsible for one's health and one's family, care-related support from other HIV-positive persons, and the onset of health decline and fear of death. Substance use remission facilitated care engagement, as did good communication from providers and trust in one's doctor. Interventions are needed in Russia to address HIV care infrastructural barriers and integrate HIV, substance abuse, care, and psychosocial services.
Our aim is to model the frequency of certain behavioral acts, especially those that are likely to transmit communicable diseases between persons. We develop a generalized linear model based on the beta prime distribution to model the responses to a survey question of the form, “When was the last time that you engaged in this behavior?” Intuitively, individuals reporting more recent events are more likely to have greater frequency of the risky behavior. The beta prime distribution is especially suited to this application because of its long tail. We adjust for length-biased sampling. We show how to use this distribution as the basis of a linear regression model that accounts for differences in demographic and psychological characteristics of the respondents. We discuss estimation of parameters, residuals, tests for heterogeneity of these parameters, and jackknife measures of influence. The methods are applied to a survey of alcohol abuse use among individuals who are at high risk for spreading HIV and other communicable diseases in a study conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Purpose: To compare the prognostic significance of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) versus creatinine levels for estimating the risk of death in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods and results: A prospective study of all patients admitted with suspected (n=1613) and retrospectively confirmed (n=54) myocardial infarction or unstable angina was conducted. The ROC analysis established that the area under the curve for BUN was higher than that of creatinine: 0.76 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.82) and 0.69 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.76), respectively (p=0.005). The threshold level (that maximised the combined sensitivity and specificity) was 8.8 mmol/l for BUN and 110 mcmol/l for creatinine. Sensitivity (true positive cases) was 60% and 55% for threshold levels of BUN and creatinine, respectively, and specificity (true negative cases) was 82% and 77%, respectively. An increase of only BUN levels and a combination of increased BUN and creatinine levels, but not isolated hypercreatinaemia, proved to be the independent risk factors of death from ACS. Separate inclusion of BUN and creatinine as continuous variables in the regression model showed that both were associated with the risk of death: OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.28) and 1.016 (95% CI 1.011 to 1.021) per unit increase (R=14.5 and 8.4%, respectively). When both were simultaneously included, only an increased BUN level was pertinent to the prognosis of ACS: OR after multivariate adjustment 1.17 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.27). Conclusion: An increased level of BUN is a more significant risk factor for ACS outcomes than that of creatinine.
Reading utilises at least two neural pathways. The temporal lexical route visually maps whole words to their lexical entries, whilst the nonlexical route decodes words phonologically via parietal cortex. Readers typically employ the lexical route for familiar words, but poor comprehension plus precocity at mechanically 'sounding out' words suggests that differences might exist in autism. Combined MEG/EEG recordings of adults with autistic spectrum conditions (ASC) and controls while reading revealed preferential recruitment of temporal areas in controls and additional parietal recruitment in ASC. Furthermore, a lack of differences between semantic word categories was consistent with previous suggestion that people with ASC may lack a 'default' lexical-semantic processing mode. These results are discussed with reference to dual-route models of reading.
Long-duration spaceflight induces detrimental changes in human physiology. Its residual effects and mechanisms remain unclear. We prospectively investigated the changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume of the brain ventricular regions in space crew by means of a region of interest analysis on structural brain scans. Cosmonaut MRI data were investigated preflight (n = 11), postflight (n = 11), and at long-term follow-up 7 mo after landing (n = 7). Post hoc analyses revealed a significant difference between preflight and postflight values for all supratentorial ventricular structures, i.e., lateral ventricle (mean % change ± SE = 13.3 ± 1.9), third ventricle (mean % change ± SE = 10.4 ± 1.1), and the total ventricular volume (mean % change ± SE = 11.6 ± 1.5) (all P < 0.0001), with higher volumes at postflight. At follow-up, these structures did not quite reach baseline levels, with still residual increases in volume for the lateral ventricle (mean % change ± SE = 7.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.0009), the third ventricle (mean % change ± SE = 4.7 ± 1.3; P = 0.0063), and the total ventricular volume (mean % change ± SE = 6.4 ± 1.3; P = 0.0008). This spatiotemporal pattern of CSF compartment enlargement and recovery points to a reduced CSF resorption in microgravity as the underlying cause. Our results warrant more detailed and longer longitudinal follow-up. The clinical impact of our findings on the long-term cosmonauts’ health and their relation to ocular changes reported in space travelers requires further prospective studies.
The paper presents results of a comprehensive analysis of the cardiovascular diseases (CVD) situation, both in the global and Russian contexts. It introduces original data illustrating the declining mortality rate from CVD, and the diminishing contribution of these diseases to overall mortality rate - globally and, to a larger extent, in developed countries. The paper also analyses the reasons for continuing CVD epidemic in Russia. Based on factual evidence, it argues that those include insufficient expenditures on treating CVD patients, and critically inadequate funding of prevention programmes. Unsatisfactory use of these funds to subsidise Russian regions (without taking into account their actual needs determined by the CVD mortality rate) only makes the problem worse. Through modelling, «average» efficiency of the Russian health care system in reducing CVD mortality was revealed. The paper describes various scenarios for future development of the Russian CVD situation. In the context of innovation-based scenario, the advantages of technological foresight are analysed; specifically, the authors summarise major S&T development trends in the health sector (using data of the Russian S&T Foresight 2030), which could significantly contribute to stopping the CVD epidemic in Russia.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the worldwide most common cause of chronic liver pathology, which prevalence strongly correlates with the increasing incidence of diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome in the general population. Simple steatosis, the earliest NAFLD stage, usually remains asymptomatic, and appropriate changes in the lifestyle, as well as the diet, can reverse the affected liver into the healthy state. The potential of simple steatosis to progress into severe fibrotic stages and to facilitate carcinogenesis necessitates timely NAFLD detection and risk stratification in community-based healthcare settings. Since their initial discovery a decade ago, extracellular circulating miRNAs have been found in all human biological fluids including blood and shown to hold great promises as non-invasive biomarkers. Normally, intracellular miRNAs participate in the regulation of gene expression, but once released by dying/dead cells they remain highly stable in the extracellular environment for prolonged periods. Therefore, circulating miRNA profiles can reflect the ongoing pathogenic processes in body's tissues and organs, and enable highly sensitive non-invasive diagnosis of multiple disorders. A non-urgent character of the NAFLD-related decision-making justifies the use of chronic liver diseases as an excellent test case for examining the practical utility of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for longitudinal monitoring of human health. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art in the field of early diagnosis of NAFLD using circulating blood miRNAs, and stress the necessity of additional experimental validation of their diagnostic potential. We further emphasize on the potential diagnostics promises of other cell-free RNA species found in human biological fluids.
Background: Since May 2004, ten Central and East European (CEE) countries have joined the European Union. While HIV rates remain low among men who have sex with men (MSM) in CEE countries, there is no research on the sexual behaviour of CEE MSM in the UK.
Methods: CEE MSM living in the UK (n=691) were recruited for an online questionnaire via two popular MSM websites.
Results: The majority of men had arrived in the UK since May 2004. A previous STI diagnosis was reported by 30.7% and 4.8% reported being HIV-positive, the majority diagnosed in the UK. Unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner of unknown or discordant HIV status was reported by 22.8%. Men who had been in the UK for longer (>5 years vs <1 year) reported more partners in the past five years (67.2% vs 50.4% had >10 partners, p<0.001) and were less likely to report their most recent partner was from their home country (14.9% vs 33.6%, p<0.001). Among migrant CEE MSM living in London, 15.4% had been paid for sex in the UK and 41.5% had taken recreational drugs in the past year.
Conclusion: CEE MSM in the UK are at risk for acquisition and transmission of STIs and HIV through UAI with non-concordant casual partners. Sexual mixing with men from other countries, commercial sex and increased partner numbers may introduce additional risk. This has important implications for cross-border transmission of infections between the UK and CEE countries. peer-00594792
Importance Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health.
Objective To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion.
Evidence Review Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss.
Findings Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long-term sequelae of conditions present at birth (eg, neonatal disorders, congenital birth defects, and hemoglobinopathies) and complications of a variety of infections and nutritional deficiencies. Anemia, developmental intellectual disability, hearing loss, epilepsy, and vision loss are important contributors to childhood disability that can arise from multiple causes. Maternal and reproductive health remains a key cause of disease burden in adolescent females, especially in lower-SDI countries. In low-SDI countries, mortality is the primary driver of health loss for children and adolescents, whereas disability predominates in higher-SDI locations; the specific pattern of epidemiological transition varies across diseases and injuries.
Conclusions and Relevance Consistent international attention and investment have led to sustained improvements in causes of health loss among children and adolescents in many countries, although progress has been uneven. The persistence of infectious diseases in some countries, coupled with ongoing epidemiologic transition to injuries and noncommunicable diseases, require all countries to carefully evaluate and implement appropriate strategies to maximize the health of their children and adolescents and for the international community to carefully consider which elements of child and adolescent health should be monitored.
Smoking is the most important preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. This nicotine addiction is mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), expressed on most neurons, and also many other organs in the body. Even within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the key brain area responsible for the reinforcing properties of all drugs of abuse, nicotine acts on several different cell types and afferents. Identifying the precise action of nicotine on this microcircuit, in vivo, is important to understand reinforcement, and finally to develop efficient smoking cessation treatments. We used a novel lentiviral system to re-express exclusively high-affinity nAChRs on either dopaminergic (DAergic) or γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing (GABAergic) neurons, or both, in the VTA. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we show that, contrary to widely accepted models, the activation of GABA neurons in the VTA plays a crucial role in the control of nicotine-elicited DAergic activity. Our results demonstrate that both positive and negative motivational values are transmitted through the dopamine (DA) neuron, but that the concerted activity of DA and GABA systems is necessary for the reinforcing actions of nicotine through burst firing of DA neurons. This work identifies the GABAergic interneuron as a potential target for smoking cessation drug development.
Cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a mural hematoma in a carotid or vertebral artery, is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults although relatively uncommon in the general population (incidence of 2.6/100,000 per year)1. Minor cervical traumas, infection, migraine and hypertension are putative risk factors1, 2, 3, and inverse associations with obesity and hypercholesterolemia are described3, 4. No confirmed genetic susceptibility factors have been identified using candidate gene approaches5. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1,393 CeAD cases and 14,416 controls. The rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1) was associated with lower CeAD risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–0.82; P = 4.46 × 10−10), with confirmation in independent follow-up samples (659 CeAD cases and 2,648 controls; P = 3.91 × 10−3; combined P = 1.00 × 10−11). The rs9349379[G] allele was previously shown to be associated with lower risk of migraine and increased risk of myocardial infarction6, 7, 8, 9. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this pleiotropy might provide important information on the biological underpinnings of these disabling conditions.
Prior to 2010, medical care for people living with HIV/AIDS was provided at an outpatient facility near the center of St. Petersburg. Since then, HIV specialty clinics have been established in more outlying regions of the city. The study examined the effect of this decentralization of HIV care on patients' satisfaction with care in clinics of St. Petersburg, Russia. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 418 HIV-positive patients receiving care at the St. Petersburg AIDS Center or at District Infectious Disease Departments (centralized and decentralized models, respectively). Face-to-face interviews included questions about psychosocial characteristics, patient's satisfaction with care, and clinic-related patient experience. Abstraction of medical records provided information on patients' viral load. To compare centralized and decentralized models of care delivery, we performed bivariate and multivariate analysis. Clients of District Infectious Disease Departments spent less time in lines and traveling to reach the clinic, and they had stronger relationships with their doctor. The overall satisfaction with care was high, with 86% of the sample reporting high level of satisfaction. Nevertheless, satisfaction with care was strongly and positively associated with the decentralized model of care and Patient-Doctor Relationship Score. Patient experience elements such as waiting time, travel time, and number of services used were not significant factors related to satisfaction. Given the positive association of satisfaction with decentralized service delivery, it is worth exploring decentralization as one way of improving healthcare services for people living with HIV/AIDS.
Applying bootstrapped quantile regression to the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data, we examine the channels through which individuals experience and seek to cope with changes in consumption. We find that married individuals living in small households, with educated heads in urban areas are better equipped to smooth consumption. Investigating the impact of idiosyncratic shocks, we find that the labour market is an important transmission mechanism allowing households to smooth their consumption but also exposing them to risk, mainly through job loss. Outside of pension payments the formal social safety net does not facilitate consumption smoothing, thus heightening the importance of informal coping institutions. It transpires that both support from relatives/friends and home production act as important insurance mechanisms for the most vulnerable.
Diffusion imaging techniques such as DTI and HARDI are difficult to implement in infants because of their sensitivity to subject motion. A short acquisition time is generally preferred, at the expense of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Before estimating the local diffusion model, most pre-processing techniques only register diffusion-weighted volumes, without correcting for intra-slice artifacts due to motion or technical problems. Here, we propose a fully automated strategy, which takes advantage of a high orientation number and is based on spherical-harmonics decomposition of the diffusion signal.Material and methods
The correction strategy is based on two successive steps: 1) automated detection and resampling of corrupted slices; 2) correction for eddy current distortions and realignment of misregistered volumes. It was tested on DTI data from adults and non-sedated healthy infants.Results
The methodology was validated through simulated motions applied to an uncorrupted dataset and through comparisons with an unmoved reference. Second, we showed that the correction applied to an infant group enabled to improve DTI maps and to increase the reliability of DTI quantification in the immature cortico-spinal tract.Conclusion
This automated strategy performed reliably on DTI datasets and can be applied to spherical single- and multiple-shell diffusion imaging.
Understanding neurocognitive mechanisms supporting the use of multiple languages is a key question in language science. Recent neuroimaging studies in monolinguals indicated that core language areas in human neocortex together with sensorimotor structures form a highly interactive system underpinning native language comprehension. While the experience of a native speaker promotes the establishment of strong action-perception links in the comprehension network, this may not necessarily be the case for L2 where, as it has been argued, the most a typical L2 speaker may get is a link between an L2 wordform and its L1 translation equivalent. Therefore, we investigated, whether the motor cortex of bilingual subjects shows differential involvement in processing action semantics of native and non-native words. We used high-density EEG to dynamically measure changes in the cortical motor system's activity, indexed by event-related desynchronisation (ERD) of the mu-rhythm, in response to passively reading L1 (German) and L2 (English) action words. Analysis of motor-related EEG oscillations at the sensor level revealed an early (starting ~150ms) and left-lateralised coupling between action and semantics during both L1 and L2 processing. Crucially, source-level activation in the motor areas showed that mu-rhythm ERD, while present for both languages, is significantly stronger for L1 words. This is the first neurophysiological evidence of rapid motor-cortex involvement during L2 action-semantic processing. Our results both strengthen embodied cognition evidence obtained previously in monolinguals and, at the same time, reveal important quantitative differences between L1 and L2 sensorimotor brain activity in language comprehension.
The review considers the roles cortisol (Crt), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and DHEA sul fate (DHEAS) play in the stress response. Agerelated, sexrelated, and circadian fluctuations in normal conditions and in acute or chronic stress are described for Crt, DHEA, and DHEAS. The main techniques used to estimate the Crt level in the blood, urine, and saliva are described, and approaches to the interpretation of the results discussed. Special attention is paid to Crt assays in anthropological and psychological studies.
Computer model coupled blood pressure dynamics in magisterial and small arteries networks and its stabilizing effect on heart functioning has been suggested. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam auto recurrence in the description of the electrical activity of the heart has demonstrated the universal role of the FPU recurrence in the study of distributed dynamical systems. The heart electrical dynamics was described by the coupled Van der Pol differential equations with a time lag, linked with two additively coupled nonlinear differential equations circumscribing the blood pressure dynamics in the networks of magisterial and small arteries. The mathematical model developed by Yuen and Lake for description of the deep wave dynamics within the nonlinear Shrodinger (NSE) equation was used for description of the magisterial arterial blood pressure whereas for small arteries blood pressure dynamics was used the approach elaborated by Zabusky and Kruskal within the framework of the Korteveg de Vries (KdV) equation. The arterial blood pressure dynamics was interpreted as coupled FPU recurrences showing a rich variety of resulting FPU spectra, which were referred to different states of Cardio Vascular System. Synchronous registering of the real ECG and Pulse Wave Fourier dynamic images allowed to unify the characteristic Fourier pictures of the heart electrical activity with the hydrodynamic blood parameters developing in the networks of two types of arteries. The computer study of the suggested model and comparison of its results with the real data proved that the ECG Fourier parameters coupled with the Pulse Wave Fourier parameters form the FPU spectra that increase stability of Cardio Vascular System and can be used for diagnostics as well as for evaluation of the therapeutic arrangements results.
The paper is devoted to analysis of the debates on sex education in the Russian press. ‘Risk narrative structure’ of media articles on sex education was determined. This structure represents a system of mutually constituting elements, which include object of risk, risks themselves, solutions to their prevention, solutions opponents, and type of society these solutions presuppose. It is argued that analysis of risks with the aid of ‘risk narrative structures’ can be a useful development of sociocultural theory of risk, as competing risk narratives can befully grasped only when considered not as discrete claims about different ‘risks’ but as coherent systems of interrelated meanings. On the basis of this structure, competent risk media narratives of proponents and opponents of sex education were reconstructed. In these narratives different definitions of ‘children’ as objects of risk were constructed, and so were types of risks, and types of society. It would be oversimplifying to consider debates on sex education as a battle of ‘enlightened rationality’ against ‘dark irrationality.’ In each risk narrative the solution (introduction or ban of sex education) is a logically following element in the respective risk narrative. While sex education advocates were concerned about negative consequences of children’s sexual behaviour and defence of the ‘civilised society’s moral boundaries, the opposite side was concerned about retaining children’s moral purity and defence of ‘traditional’ moral boundaries.