This article discusses the influence of the social and institutional trust on charitable activities of Russians. Two most common Russian charitable practices are presented in the study: monetary donations and volunteering. The paper explores theoretical bases and summarizes the results of empirical analyses describing the relationship between these practices and generalized and interpersonal trust as well as trust in non-profit institutions. Data of Russian nationwide representative survey (N = 1500, 2015) are analyzed using binary logistic regression to assess the impact of trust on Russian monetary and time donations. The authors reveal that trust in non-profit organizations prevails over general interpersonal trust as a factor that facilitates Russian participation in charities. The authors also conclude that institutional trust is a stronger predictor to donate money to charity compared to volunteering.
World-class sporting events are one of the most significant macro-markers of identity. They reflect the cognitive, emotional, normative value and behavioral aspects of the interactions between the state and the individual. The following article describes the Russian young people’s state identity in the context of Olympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi. Using survey and focus-group methods we tried to understand if the official channels of information are relevant to that uses youth and if it is true that “sport as a celebration” unites the individual and the state. The results of the study are the following. (1) The behavioral and emotional elements of the state identity of young Russians demonstrate a strong dependence. However, a positive attitude to the Olympic Games as a special “public-and-private” celebration is formed mainly within small social groups, first of all in the family. News reports in the media, and discussions in official press do not make any difference for the young people. (2) The knowledge of any facts concerning Olympics does not lead to positive emotional, as well as to changes in behavior. Distrust to official sources of information and the desire to “search for truth” in Internet sources increase communicative gap between the government and the youth. (3) The assessment of around-olympic events has been developed through the “Russia is unique” formula. Here, this popular attitude was manifested in the inability to bring the business to a successful end, the inevitability of serious problems in a negative comparison with other (primarily Western) countries. This indicates the dominance of negative identity among Russian youth.
The article examines the phenomenon of excessive online gaming, in particular, the massively multiplayer online role-playing games addiction (MMORPG addiction). The author distinguishes between two notions – dependence and excessive dedication. The article poses questions concerning the impact of excessive online gaming on social skills and intensity of communications between the gamers. Based on the foreign literature analysis the study describes such concepts as game, game addiction, gaming dedication, social capital, social skills, and intensity of communications between gamers. The paper also contains results of empirical study conducted among 479 users of multiplayer online games who took part in online survey. The authors use logic and simple linear regression in the study. The findings show that excessive online gaming has a bad effect on the intensiveness of communications; however, there is also a positive impact on social skills. These results differ from those obtained by foreign colleagues who record exceptionally negative effect of online gaming excess. The authors of the article review the desocializing effect of excessive online gaming and assume that it may be overestimated by other researchers.
The authors discuss the problems of selection of respondents for participation in online surveys. The results and the experience of the use of the respondent-driven sampling (RDS) used in online surveys among students of the Higher School of Economics were analyzed in the article. The authors checked whether the web-based RDS corresponds to the basic assumptions such as reciprocity of communications between respondents, random selection and respondent` capability to adequately assess the size of the ego network. An additional question referred to the influence of the “seeds” (first RDS respondents) on the dynamics and the quality of the final sampling was also studied. To answer the questions, two online RDSbased surveys were carried out by the author (online RDS-1 and online RDS-2). The key difference between these two studies is that the “seeds” in the second one were selected out of the researchers` own personal contacts. The authors conclude that the dynamics of the online RDS is more effective if the “seeds” know the researcher in person. At the same time, online RDS-1 and online RDS-2 did not provide the exact assessment of the control parameters of the population. Based on the results of the study the authors define problems for future research.
I examine attitudes of Muslim migrants in Western Europe to the statement “When jobs are scarce, men should have priority over women” compared simultaneously to local Europeans and to their former compatriots back in the sending societies. Using a harmonized dataset combining European Social Survey as the core source, World Values Study, and European Values Study, and, I apply non-nested multilevel logistic regression. The survey shows that migrants in general assimilate fast and follow the trend of the receiving society, whereas Muslim migrants are society substantially less egalitarian gender-wise then local Europeans and other migrants (to various extent), however more liberal than their former compatriots.
The belief that survey research instruments mediating communication between an interviewer and a respondent influence the quality of data obtained in the process of survey interview, has become a conventional wisdom long ago. However, among various methods of pre-testing, evaluating survey instruments’ quality and revealing the potential sources of measurement bias, the methods of quantitative estimation of cognitive load experienced by interviewers or respondents during the interview are still lacking. In a case of personal interview as a means of survey data collection, physical and, to a much greater extent, mental efforts are invested by both respondents and interviewers. In the situation when a questionnaire is filled up by an interviewer it is the latter who primarily has to allocate limited individual resources of attention, memory, visual and motor control, active listening and interpretation in order to minimize misunderstandings of the question on the respondent’s side and errors of the answers’ fixation on interviewer's own side. Successfully performing such multiple tasks demands considerable metacognitive and self-regulatory skills from the interviewer. Interviewers’ multitasking in the process of conducting an interview, including tasks of maintaining communication with a respondent, controlling over one’s own actions of filling-in the questionnaire and over the technical part of the process, fixation of possible disturbances during the interview and so on, may lead to depletion of available cognitive resources and to interviewer’s cognitive overload. This can result in the deterioration of data quality. However, sociologists’ attention to the measurement of cognitive load in the process of interview has been minimal so far. The article presents results of an analytical review of traditional and modern approaches to the measurement of the cognitive load, employed in such disciplinary fields as cognitive science, ergonomics, research on the processes of education and problem-solving, etc. The authors substantiate the possibility of employment of some subjective, objective and behavioral measures of cognitive load for the purposes of quantitative evaluation and optimization of interviewer’s (and, in prospect, respondent’s) cognitive load, which arises during the interview process. We also outline the near perspectives and expected benefits of the development of an integral methodological approach to the employment of multiple indicators of cognitive load in the surveys of various types. Keywords: interview-evoked cognitive load; subjective measures of cognititve load, objective and behavioral measures of cognitive load, task-evoked pupillary response, subjective cognitive load measurement scales, survey data quality
The article deals with the analysis of St Petersburg middle-class parents’ perception of urban space. The city is presented as a space of conflict of different actors fighting to define their place in the city, its optimal use and the boundaries between child and adult spaces. The paper is based on the empirical research results (analysis of interviews with parents and official documents) and describes the range and content of the activities of actors which set the configuration of the urban space for children (state, market and parents). The opinion of parents as active citizens about different initiatives of city administration and business community is analyzed. Conflicts about children’s playgrounds are cited as examples of daily urban confrontations. The author concludes that middle-class parents’ requirements toward urban spaces for children and new-type playground arrangement are rather specific.
The paper aims at assessing the extent to which Moscow residents can keep city silence - an urban life phenomenon describing the passivity of people and their unwillingness to come together for joint actions. The paper is based on the data of the civilc society monitoring which is carried out by the Centere for Studies of Civil Society and the Non-Pprofit Sector of the National Research University Higher School of Economics. The level of involvement of the Moscow residents in offline and online civil society practices are considered in the article. The results of the surveys conducted among Moscow residents are compared with the all-Russian data including different types of settlements. The authors conclude that there are no grounds to describe for characterising the public activism of the Muscovites as a “city silence”. However, further efforts to create favourable and accessible environment for manifesting social activism as a resource of urban development are needed.