The reflection of the disclosed observations and in-depth interviews (conducted with state and municipal officials and employees of state and municipal institutions), conducted by the author throughout the course of 6 years of field research in over 150 municipalities, including ones collected within the framework of 2 projects specially focused on the quality of statistical and registration activities, in conjunction with the thematic systematization of scientific literature on this subject, has allowed to identify 3 basic groups of reasons for the restrictions and distortions of statistics.
The first group contains an unavoidable often over-simplified representation of socio-economic processes on behalf of the state for the sake of registrability. A number of other conceptual and methodological factors also form this group. The second focuses on the problems of unintended systematical real methods of primary data collection and processing differences from the formal, and also on the distortions of statistics associated with the specifics of the administrative-territorial information gathering system. In other words, the technological restrictions and distortions are gathered in the second section. The third group includes the deliberate falsification of indicators to improve the assessment of authorities’ efficiency, together with other deformations of socio-psychological origin arising due to the fact that statistics are not a neutral tool.
The purpose of this article is to systematize and give a detailed description of the mechanisms of socio-economic and other processes of distortion by means of the optics of authorities, as well as to formulate possible ways of improving the quality of information. The following tasks are identified in order to achieve the main objective: a consistent detailed consideration of the causes and consequences of the restrictions and distortions, a rethinking and factor classifying of the content of domestic and foreign research on this topic through the results of our own field qualitative research.
The author concludes that official statistics in the Russian Federation have lost their referential function; also there is an increasing gap between those indicators accumulated by the subjects of official statistical accounting, together with the image of reality formed on their basis, and the reality itself. “The dead zones” (processes, objects, aspects and features which are not visible to the managers) are found in all sectors of society and authority’s activity: in the assessments of economic activity, social status and living standards of the population, recording offences and crimes, registration of municipal property — in some cases it can be large-scale and in other cases it could be relatively insignificant.
The author assumes that poor quality of information is one of the major reasons for the inefficiency of domestic public administration. The described conditions of the system seem to be an institutional trap; the transformation of official statistics, registration processes and authorities’ vision system can only come at significant a cost, and so the status quo remains standing. The author offers possible ways to solve the considered issues, in case the government does see the need to improve the quality of statistical data.
The article deals with workers on the border between self-employment and employment. Continuous work only for one company creates various forms of economic, organizational and social dependency of self-employed. IT-technologies have an ambiguous impact on work autonomy. Social security issues are discussed.
трудовая автономия, зависимая самозанятость, Телеработа, Социальная защищенность, work autonomy, dependent self-employment, Telework, Social Security
This paper discusses factors how morally dense communities regulate the consumer debt of their members by enacting both financial and non-financial mechanisms. We rely on the gift exchange theory to demonstrate how communities with high social density morally regulate consumer behavior of their members. We use the data gathered during an empirical study of economic activities of the members of Orthodox parishes in four Russian cities and suggest the four-stage model of the influence of community on the motivation and behavior of potential borrowers. The four elements, in the order of importance, are regulation of wants, non-financial mechanisms of satisfaction of wants, gratuitous financial aid, and distributed solidary responsibility for consumer credit. In contrast to atomized individuals who act upon the moral principles of preserving independence and relying only on themselves, members of parishes are governed by different moral imperatives: they are encouraged to ask for help and to suggest it to others. This paper demonstrates that communities can operate as agents of natural social control over consumer credit by both inducing deliberation on financial decisions and distributing the risks associated with consumer borrowing.
The purpose of this article is to identify how Russian citizens’ participation in NGOs (both ‘isolated’ and ‘open’) affects their involvement in the movement of election observers and the intensity (frequency) of observations. A theoretical overview revealed the various ways nonprofit organizations effect the development of democracy — positive (‘school of democracy’), negative and differentiated. Taking into account the diversity of Russia’s non-profit sector, the authors preferred the latter differentiated approach. Six hypotheses were formulated and tested about the way participation in NGOs effects citizens’ involvement in election observation and its intensity. The empirical basis for the paper is data from an All-Russian survey of the general population, as well as data from an online survey of election observers conducted in 2013. It was established that the probability of becoming an election observer is significantly higher among those whose experience in volunteering and NGOs is complemented by interpersonal trust. The authors also revealed that citizens’ who participate in ‘open’ NGOs are more likely to become election observers and have more intense experience in observation. Participation in ‘isolated’ types of NGOs does not affect involvement in election observation, but increases the intensity of it. In general, it is shown that Russian NGOs, within the context of research, do indeed have the potential to be ‘schools of democracy’.
Many researchers highlighted the financial arguments between spouses as the key predictor of family disruption and divorce. Moreover, these arguments are defined as the most difficult and lasting for partners. The topic of money in general is considered to be one of the last taboos in society since it hides behind itself questions of power. However, the question of what are the determinants of the financial disagreements emergence remains as a blank spot in a vast body of research devoted to marital conflicts and financial management. This study is an attempt to fill this gap and answer questions about what may lead to their occurrence. Literature review showed that the grounds for power construction in a household affect the occurrence of a financial conflict. One more crucial aspect is the division of labor between partners, which, according to a number of studies, is a key factor of the spouses’ marital dissatisfaction (especially for women) and, as a result, of the emergence of a large number of conflicts. Thus at the theoretical level, it was suggested that there are 5 aspects influencing financial disagreements: financial management in the family, the distribution of power and household responsibilities, the contribution of the spouses to the family budget, their employment and the financial difficulties in the family.
The empirical study was based on the Survey of Consumer Finance data of the 2013 Russian wave (the sample included 2480 families) and three methods of analysis (classification trees, logistic regression and log-linear analysis). The data shows that the main determinants of frequent disagreements about money in families are gendered: in order to decrease financial arguments frequency husband has to be thrifty and have traditionalist attitudes. Women in turn contribute to financial disagreements decrease if they have the same level of satisfaction with making financial decisions in comparison with a man. The formal indicators of family life such as possession of resources and income ratio seem to have no influence on family conflicts about money.
The paper analyzes general changes in the depth of inequalities in Russian society as a whole and the vector of changes in income stratification model of the mass strata in Russian society in comparison with the dynamics of income stratification models in several other countries - developed European, post-socialist, developing Latin American countries, and China. The two-way connection between income stratification models on one hand, and the historical past and the general vector of political development of these countries on the other, is shown. Paper demonstrates that in terms of the type of income stratification of mass strata Russia is similar to European countries, but it has two distinguishing characteristics. The first one is a pronounced tendency towards the concentration of the population in the "median" group due to the traditional equalizing of the incomes of the mass strata "on the average". Second is a very large and growing gap between the "top" of society and the rest of Russians, which means a gradual "thinning" of the stratum that connects this "top" with the mass population. Both these tendencies have been intensifying over the years. While statistics shows a seeming reduction in the depth of intra-country income inequalities, in reality, their deepening is taking place in Russia. The analysis was carried out on the basis of extensive empirical material, including FSSS statistical data for 1970-2016 and three sources of sociological data for 1994-2017 (International Social Survey Program, Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – HSE and the Monitoring Study of the Institute of Sociology RAS).
Formation of democratic societies of the Western type presupposes appearance on the historical scene of a new strong actor - the bourgeois class: "No bourgeoisie, no democracy" (Barrington Moore). The articulation and defense of vital interests of that class creates a new social space - "the bourgeois public sphere" which helps to make up "counterbalance" to absolutism of a corporate state - a civil society, the core of which is composed by public opinion. In the confrontation between the authorities and society one of the most important roles is played by the press that provides free debate and discussion of generally valid problems, especially economic and political. The recognition of the mass media role was stamped in its characterization in XIII century as "the fourth power". Technological development of the media incredibly expanded its functions, turning journalists into creating informational analogue of reality, saturating daily life with new meanings. Methods of the representation of reality, the specific nature of political influence of journalists - key members of the reflexive elites (Helmut Shelski), are the themes of this article.
Публичная сфера, журналистика, четвертая власть, порядки знания, Повседневность, научное и повседневное знание, экспертиза, Репрезентация, public sphere, journalism, fourth estate, orders of knowledge, Everyday life, scientific and everyday knowledge, Expertise, representation
Last few decades, demographers have observed changes in the organization of the individual's life course. This study is devoted to comparing Russia with other European countries in terms of matrimonial behavior modernization, identifying clusters of Russians depending on their family formation trajectories, analyzing the spread of modern trajectories among generations of Russians, finding out factors of choosing each trajectory. Parameters of family formation behavior available in the second wave of the international survey "Generation and Gender Program" demonstrated that Russia follows one way of modernization with European countries. The results of cluster analysis based on the panel data of Russian part of "Generation and Gender Survey" revealed 9 clusters of Russians according to the sequence and time of first cohabitation, marriage and firstborn. The trajectories "Early marriage, birth of a child" and "Late marriage, birth of a child" are the most common. More than 60% of the respondents from soviet generations followed these two trajectories. In case of modern generations, they were displaced by trajectories, where early or late cohabitation precedes marriage and the trajectory "Cohabitation, birth of a child". The frequencies of choosing the other four trajectories are statistically stable for different generations. Multinomial logistic regression showed that a type of settlement, level of education, ages of separation from parents and the first job, gender, generation and parents’ matrimonial experience are the factors of the family formation trajectory’s choice.
Interrelation of the Internet and social movements is one of the core problems for both research domains. This theme is growing more and more demanded and rapidly developing. However the research field is quite heterogeneous and its theoretical and methodological groundings might be not evident. The scholars use a diverse terminological range that hampers the knowledge growth.
In this article we suppose a historical inquiry to the field development in order to trace its thematic and disciplinary transformation. The key question is which stages can be defined and what is the context of the Internet and social movements subject development. We analyze the scientific journals in Science Direct and Scopus databases and suppose a range of explanatory models for understanding this trend.
We found general dynamics of Internet and social movements topic development and disciplinary areas which could be explained as a drivers of publications growth for different periods of time. The key findings demonstrate that subject consists of core and periphery publications, which persist in both databases. We study both articles that are dedicated to Internet and movements and those published in different fields. The discussion reveals the subject triggers on different stages: future studies, management and medicine input, social studies and finally Internet research. We also undercover that Internet and social movements are sometimes used in quite various context as symbols of social changes and new technology challenges for different institutions and groups.