Psychoanalytic tradition of study of food as a primary form of communication of a person and the world is represented in the researches of M. Klein, D. Frankl, F. Perls - in their works we can see evolution of the psychoanalytic tradition of study of food experience of a person - from the analysis of the primary food experience in the relationship mother-baby to the idea of mental metabolism, which has structural similarity with food metabolism. F. Perls and D. Frankl articulated the communicative concept of food experience, according to which the identity of a person is formed and his/her existential choice is constructed, too. The main psychoanalytic idea is that food experience is passed through the human positive / negative energy of libido - that is encounter with the world as Others in the primary act of food awakens ones own libidinal energy of an individual and serves as a stimulus to personal development. Psychoanalysis insists that the underlying constructs of interaction with the world are formed in early childhood, are based on the primary food reactions, and are projected to all other forms of its communications. The theory of assimilation and introjection of the authority is the most important discovery of F. Perls. Standards to ensure the quality of physical and mental metabolism are assimilation. At the level of introjection an embedded object maintains without any processing. Normal personal growth always implies a critical attitude toward any objects from the surrounding world, a molar, rather aggressive attitude towards them, and as a result - their assimilation. While introduction of any values in the consciousness of a person occurs when a person forms ability to introjecton and inability to assimilation. Therefore, a totalitarian society has a special food culture - when the level of the body inculcates the habit of introjection of the external object in the form of food, the habit, which is extrapolated to other areas of life, including the sphere of consciousness. Then mental metabolism is also disturbed, and the person is ready to introjection what is suitable for a totalitarian power. Therefore, a totalitarian society cannot be an affluent society - in particular, the culture of food of a totalitarian society must have defective nature and must be accompanied by repressive nutritional practices.
Economics has developed up to the moment a number of methods to estimate IT impact on firms' productivity and to analyse the channels of such impact. The paper presents the review of the literature on IT economics and results of IT productivity research in Russia which was performed in 2010-2012. As a result positive IT impact on productivity was for the first time demonstrated on the dataset of 200 Russian firms. Some specific organizational arrangements ensuring productive IT usage were also found
The article considers the book “L’Etui de Nacre” by Anatole France as a cycle which combines texts belonging to different forms of small epic genres. The analysis of the genres within the cycle leads the authors of the article to the conclusion that the first part of the book comprises texts of literary legends, complicated by the elements of the tale. The subject, the system of images and motifs are borrowed from the genre of hagiographic legend, whereas the narrative strategies and the author’s ironic attitude can be characterized as elements typical of the genre of tale (novella) and are aimed at deceiving the reader’s expectations. The second part of the book, devoted to France’s contemporaneity, contains the texts that correlate with the genre of tale. Among their typical features are the explicit plot and the vivid pointe. The third part consists of the texts that can be defined as short stories. Initially supposed to become chapters of a novel, the texts that appear in the book as separate stories are characterized by fragmented structure, weak plot line, laconic style, which are typical of the short story.
The next stage is the analysis of the cycle structure, the principles of uniting the texts into the book and their place within the cycle. It is claimed that the different parts of the cycle contain stories that share the same motifs or ideas but are presented in the traditions of various genre canons. The fact that the chronological succession is broken can be explained by France’s concept of history. According to the writer, history presents not a linear, but a cyclic development, therefore instead of a chronological structure of the book a juxtaposition of different historical epochs is chosen – the first centuries of Christianity, the end of the nineteenth century, and the events of the French Bourgeois revolution. Besides, “L’Etui de Nacre” is opened and closed with the idea that it is possible to comprehend the essence of history only from a certain time distance. When France breaks the time logic, he allows the reader to look at each period of time “from without.”
The integrity of motifs, narrative techniques and the author’s attitude makes it possible to unite the stories which demonstrate the features of the literary legend, tale and short story. The unification leads to the appearance of additional messages and serves as a means of expressing the author’s position in the complex narrative structure of individual texts.
Modern retail in Russia over the past 20 years has gone the way that retail chains in Western Europe have been going on for about 70 years. If in the early 2000s the largest retailers (Auchan, Metro) started opening their first stores in our country and nowadays the share of seven key retailers accounts for the third of the market. A couple of years ago, the Scan & go function (payment without a cash desk) was presented in single stores, today many hypermarkets are actively offering and developing this kind of service. According to current trends, customer behavior will change in the near future: the sharing economy, the emergence of new devices, the growing generation of millennials - all of these factors will have a strong impact on retailers in the future, and innovations may become the main driving forces of the industry. Those retailers who do not think about the vision of the future, worrying only about EBITDA, risk not having time to adjust to a new generation, which in five years can become the main buyers. In the modern rapidly changing world, the vision of the future allows the company to find a direction of the development taking into account trends for more distant horizons.
In the articles of Russian authors, the topic of retail in general is poorly studied esp. the approach to the formation of longer-term strategies based on the study of mega-trends. An attempt to understand what is future for retailers and what they should pay attention to today when developing strategies is the scientific novelty of this work and the personal contribution of the author. Such an approach to strategy development can be used by any retailer, which indicates the practical significance of the work.
Contemporary research in the field of developmental psychology confirms one of the main theses of W. Quine that human thinking, that deals with the ontology of everyday experience, needs not only individual, but also in general terms, based on a divided reference. Moreover, our learning of common concepts ensures contact not only with the everyday reality of the surrounding objects and events, as well as the transition to abstract concepts that are characteristic of scientific ontology. A necessary condition for comprehending general concepts about objects is the notions of a stable identity of objects in changing contexts and of not directly perceived parts of the surrounding world. For example, a child in the course of her or his development, can comprehend general concepts about objects, learning to refer not only to individual perceived objects, but also to an unobserved set of similar objects.
However, the main prerequisite for reference to objects with the help of single or general concepts is the knowledge that others also refer to the same objects and their properties, using the same words. It turns out, therefore, that the condition of objective reference is the intersubjective experience of perception of objects and events.This, however, does not imply a relativistic view of the world, but only that the perception of the surrounding world necessarily requires that other people's minds be perceived (however abstractly) as other view of the same situation of the world. According to D. Davidson, such intersubjective triangulation is the core of the concepts of truth and objectivity, without which thinking and language learning would be impossible. Hence it follows that such intersubjectivity assumes a common experience shared with other people only if from a certain age we have some knowledge of these people’s mental states. However, psychologists have not yet advanced beyond establishing a correlation between the ways a child grasps the concepts of the identity of objects and of other people’s mental states.The article proposes a solution of the problem of causal dependence between these concepts. It consists in the fact that knowledge of others’ mental states not only gives reference its intersubjective character, but is also a condition of objective reference to the objects around us in general. In other words, the perception of other people's mental states is not secondary or additional to the perception of objects, it is not a primitive theorizing or predicting someone else's behavior. On the contrary, our reaction to other minds is in fact a primary phenomenon of our perception. To substantiate this solution, the article introduces the notion of verbal gestures to unobservable objects and events. Such verbal gestures not only characterize our perception of other people's mental states, but ultimately permeate our perception of the world as a whole. In this case, all of our speech can be regarded as a verbal gesture and, accordingly, one of the essentially human modes of perceptions of the world.
Epic Middle High German poetry is a sample of written language based on oral tradition. Such literary works can play an important role in addressing the issue of reconstruction of some features that are natural for medieval oral speech. To investigate these features, of particular concern is direct speech of characters and first-person storytelling.
There are three primary aims of this study: 1. To explore aspects of direct speech of epic characters. 2. To examine the role and functions of direct speech in the text. 3. To investigate the relationship between direct speech of characters and first-person storytelling. This study uses a qualitative approach. Data for this study was the Middle High German epic poem Nibelungenlied.
The current study found that direct speech of characters in the Nibelungenlied has three layers: the layer of oral tradition, the layer of oral speech of the 12th-13th centuries, and the layer of written language.
It was revealed that there is an imbalance between the growth of work performance and the efficiency of the human capital training system. The definition of “work performance competency” is explained as a dynamic combination of knowledge, skills, experience, and practical ability to achieve the goal of increasing work performance. Work performance competencies were included in the cluster of corporate, social, personal, and professional competencies. The author considered these competencies as a final result of training. Furthermore, work performance competencies show that an employee is ready for the future growth of his/her performance efficiency. This also allows tracking the changes of the readiness of each individual. The hierarchy of the goals growth of work performance was determined as a subsequent transition of individual goals of the work performance. The individual goals are known as changes in competencies, growth of the income, professionalism and career. In the author’s opinion, it is worthwhile to define these factors on the basis of the classic formulation of human capital growth reserves. Human capital reserves refer to the combination of production resources utilization and human capital employment. To define growth of work performance goals with a hierarchical approach, it is needed to decompose it into three major functions of the human capital training: 1) individual goals of work performance are achieved with increment of work performance competencies; 2) work performance goals within a team and a production unit are achieved with major functions of the human capital training system (such as a required category of tasks, disengagement of production capacity, and reduction of factory cost due to human capital expenses); 3) on the micro level of an organization, common work performance goals, such as strategic possibilities of the production diversification, intense growth through the product development, and reduction in time of product releases on the market. These work performance goals are achieved through the two major functions of the training system: reduction in deficiency in professions, and production capacity and human capital disengagement. The model of the human capital training system has been developed in order to maximize the reserves of production efficiency growth through the utilization of a competence and hierarchy approach. The model structures and matches subsystems of corporate, social, personal, and professional competencies of an employee on the individual level and subsystems of the growth of human capital capacity, training management, resource capacity, and training infrastructure on the enterprise level.
On the one hand, Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics is admittedly the integrative part of the history of phenomenological movement. On the other hand, the hermeneutical subject area, as well as disciplinary self-awareness of hermeneutics, diverges considerably from that of the initial E. Husserl's phenomenological project. This fact serves as a motif for reconstruction of the intrinsic logic of the phenomenological movement. The aim of such reconstruction is to answer the following questions: What is the reason for including philosophical hermeneutics into phenomenological philosophy? What role does hermeneutics play in the history of the phenomenological movement? The interpretation of phenomenological subject area in terms of primordial phenomenality serves as a horizon for this reconstruction of the essential logic of phenomenological research. Such understanding of phenomenological philosophy focus has priority over conventional characteristics of phenomenological subject matter as a variety of phenomena accessible within special methodological attitude. It allows, first of all, to avoid fragmentation of the area of primordial, i.e. phenomenological phenomena and to minimize presuppositions. The totality of phenomenality blocks constructivism inherent to descriptive phenomenology and in consequence limits the application field of reflexive or methodological approaches. The process of disclosing or articulating primordial phenomenality can be described as phenomenologising. Eventually, phenomenology as an explicative method is regarded as the first part of the two-level process of phenomenologising. The second part of this process is the spontaneous self-disclosing of primordial phenomenality. The idea of two-level phenomenology (phenomenology as a method and as a spontaneous event) has been differently realised in Heidegger's and Gadamer's phenomenological-hermeneutical conceptions. From the very beginning Heidegger stands up for the performative, i.e. existential-practical understanding of phenomenological explication. According to him, phenomenology does not so much explicate phenomena but points at those areas and forms of experience where that explication occurs spontaneously. Still, Heidegger is oriented at the explication of static structures of these experiences (which he calls existentialities), which allows us to speak about rudimentary transcendentalism of his philosophical position. In his late works Heidegger emphasises the world-disclosing potency of ontic experiences. Gadamer develops this tendency considering various everyday experiences such as perception of art, participation in rituals, reading, and etc. to be areas of spontaneous phenomenologising.
The article is devoted to assessment of social well-being of families of children with disabilities in contemporary Russia. Social well-being is defined as social benefits satisfaction, integration into society as well as a subjective sense of well-being of individuals. An analysis of social well-being will give the opportunity to assess the ability of Russian social policy to accommodate beneficiaries’ needs. The empirical base of the research includes the interviews with experts, parents and children with disabilities themselves (N = 16) collected in three Russian regions, as well as the data of official governmental statistics. Based on these data the research problem is discussed around the most relevant aspects of social policy for beneficiaries influenced on their social well-being such as primary and secondary education, employment, social services provision, public opinion towards children with disabilities.
This article discusses the problem of the so-called objectless presentations, which was largely discussed within Austrian philosophy of the 19th century. Our analysis is concentrated on the evolution of understanding and status of objectless presentations in works of three main authors of this tradition: The Theory of Science by B. Bolzano, On Content and Object of Presentations by K. Twardowski and Intentional Objects by E. Husserl. For the first time the thesis on objectless presentations was offered by Bolzano (1837), who gave precise characteristics to objects, which do not correspond to any type of presentation. Later, Bolzanos ideas were reactualized by Twardowski (1894). Logical and psychological study of the latter was mainly based on his interpretation of Brentanos conception, and particularly on his own understanding of intentionality. Twardowski in his investigations wrote about a necessity of special differentiation between the content of presentation and the immanent object, where the latter was considered as intentional and real. Thus, from Twardowskis point of view, the idea of objectless presentations is based on a visible mistake: nonexistence of an object is always confused with its nonbeing presented. Also the matter of exceptional importance is his analysis of the notion nothing. This notion was originally brought into the discussion by Bernard Bolzano, who used it as an example of objectless presentation. As an answer to this Twardowski presented the logical analysis of nothing and proved that it (in terms of Mills logic) is not a name, or, in other words, it is not a categorematic, but syncategorematic expression. Husserls essay in some way finishes this discussion. Here we should pay attention to the problem of the context Husserl was writing his work (1894) in. Intentional Objects was the first work Husserl did not write in the tradition of Brentanos descriptive psychology. Under the influence of Frege and Bolzano, Husserl becomes a radical critic of psychologism, and, of course, he successfully ridiculed the thing as an assumption of existence of such essences as content of presentation. Accordingly, as he took up the position of logicism he sharply criticized various attempts of assuming the real existence of those things, which are logically impossible. Thus, we can note, that this analysis allows us to find out the key opposition, which characterizes philosophy of those times: the opposition of psychologism and logicism.
The article compares two twentieth century English novels: The Ministry of Fear (1943) by Graham Greene and The Heat of the Day (1949) by Elizabeth Bowen in terms of the techniques used by their authors to create the atmosphere of mystery. The choice of the material is justified by the evident similarities in the plots of the two novels and also by the fact that both authors were acting as British secret agents during the World War II and thus their view on espionage (which is the main topic in both novels) is worth studying closely. The aim of this research was to figure out the reasons why these literary works arouse the feeling of anxiety and thrill in the reader. Besides, we aspired to see whether the authors employ the same or different techniques when their intention is to bring the Mysterious into their plot.
The analysis of the methods of modeling the mysterious is preceded by the study of genre. It seemed absolutely necessary to introduce such a study as the mystery in literature has always been seen as an indispensible part of a detective story, spy story or horror story and the research would be incomplete without the profound understanding of the connection of the novels with these genres or the account of their history and development. It is concluded that the genre of The Ministry of Fear and The Heat of the Day can be most accurately defined as "psychological spy thriller", bearing many of the typical traits of the spy story on the one hand and concentrating on characters’ mind and feelings on the other.
The analysis of the novels shows that they are similar in the way they interpret the existential problem of "the other" and in how they use the duality motif. The main characters in both novels (Arthur Rowe in The Ministry of Fear and Stella Rodney in The Heat of the Day) are searching for the enemy only to find him in themselves. At the same time each of the two systems of characters has its pairs of ‘twins’: while there is only one, though a major one, in Bowen’s novel (Robert Kelway and Robert Harrison), there are lots of them in Greene’s novel, because here most of the characters lead a double life. However it is most crucial to highlight the duality motif in the plot of Arthur Rowe’s losing his memory and becoming Mr Digby.
Still, the authors employ different ways to create the suspense effect. While Graham Greene achieves this by the changes of tempo which becomes faster each time something dreadful or shocking is going to happen, Elizabeth Bowen makes use of the lacunae in plot. Missing information makes the reader wonder and try to fill in the gaps by himself and the fact that the author never gives him the final answer whether he has guessed right adds a lot to his anxiety.
The paper deals with the morphosyntactic and stylistic properties of the Russian verb SUNUT’ and argues for their semantic motivation. SUNUT’ is usually considered as one of “putting verbs” (denoting change of location), but it has some peculiarities in its syntax, derivational patterns, semantics and stylistics. Unlike other verbs of this taxonomic class, SUNUT’ profiles the way the object is transferred to the Goal location, but not the location itself. It implies that after the object is rapidly moved by the human hand, the hand is quickly removed from the final location of the object. The idea of incompleteness which arises due to the component of high speed is responsible for low-register uses of SUNUT’.
It is shown that the component of low register disappears in the context of some prefixes, like PRO- which change the semantic profile of the lexical item. However, ZA- or POD- derivatives inherit the original stylistic register of SUNUT’ and enrich it with additional implicatures emerged from their meaning (‘putting far away’ --> ‘without enough control’ + low register; ‘putting under’ --> ‘secretly’ + low register).
Low register is also inherited by two reflexive derivatives of SUNUT’: SUNUT’SJA & SOVAT’SJA. The results of the corpus study (based on the data of Russian National Corpus, www.ruscorpora.ru) presented in the paper demonstrate that previously the reflexive and non-reflexive forms of SUNUT’ were not stylistically marked and occurred in neutral surroundings. No earlier than in the XIX century the reflexive forms SUNUT’SJA & SOVAT’SJA denoted impatient motion of a human being in different directions. In most cases that was motion forward form the initial position. Interestingly, the forms were also used in contexts of polite request, which prove they were not marked stylistically. The gradual effect of lowering of the register took place within the interval of one century; it represents a clear case of semantic shift affecting these derivatives.
The non-reflexive verb SUNUT’ displays an unusual semantic development: along with ‘putting’, in Modern Russian, it can denote ‘giving’, ‘showing’ and ‘hitting’. The final part of the paper argues that the corresponding shifts (no matter how unusual they look) are motivated by regular syntactic patterns of SUNUT’. The most complicated is the shift from ‘putting’ to ‘hitting’. The verb undergoes radical syntactic reinterpretation and becomes intransitive.
However, the mechanism of this shift is fully transparent as it is shown in the article.
This work is devoted to the examination and analysis of the family business inheritance phenomenon, its emergence and specific system prevailing in Russia. The focus is made on the review of the most relevant and popular theories and methods used by the authors to study the position of women in the system of small family firms’ inheritance, obstacles women face in the process of business transition to the second generation and the role stereotypical traditional Russian brought-up plays in these issues. The article concentrates on the “gender attributes” – inequality between male and female heirs both in administration of family firm and in the process of decision-making about the future development of the enterprise. The scheme of family business inheritance in Russia is one of the serious problems linked to both entrepreneurship and aspects related to gender inequality.
A study of the typological characteristics of the social behavior of students of the Faculty of Physical Education. Three types of behavior of students, each of whom has an original pattern of psychological characteristics, providing a variety of options to adapt to the educational environment of the university teacher. Identified averages scales love for children interested in the sport and an interest in teaching. Only the students of the first type of social behavior are distinguished in the scale interest in the sport is above average. Typology of psychological characteristics will provide quality training to future careers.