Internal return migrant workers (modern seasonal workers, or “otkhodniks”) are relatively new, but already a mass phenomenon in Russia. We estimate the number of otkhodniks in Russia now in 15-20 million working-age population. This category of migrant workers exists outside the public administration system, primarily occupying the sector of “gray economy”. The bodies of state and municipal authorities had not yet formed any definite relationship with them. Any management solutions have not been established. There are no management decisions on regulation of otkhodnichestvo working. There is no regulatory framework. The article, based on field studies in 40 Russian regions and empirical data for the 77 municipalities, is considered the problem of interaction between the government and migrant workers in three aspects: (1) the ratio of otkhodniks to power, (2) forms and types of interactions between the otkhodniks and the authorities, (3) the political significance of modern otkhodniks. The otkhodniks are eliminated completely from the government. They refuse to interact with the government and local self-government. There is no cooperation between the authorities and this category of migrant workers. The authorities underestimate the economic and political importance of modern otkhodniks. All this creates significant social and political threats and risks for the public administration system.
Keywords: returnable work migration; Russian internal work migration – otkhodnichestvo; otkhodnik; self-employment; small entrepreneurship; shadow economy; public administration; local society; municipal government; local society-government interaction; political activity; social tension.
Ensuring sustainable socio-economic development of Russia is largely associated with governance based on law. This relationship is not easy to detect and ensure due to the diversity of management development, despite the nomination of strategic goals, there are deviations in the legal sphere from the established goals and principles of legal regulation. The article is based on the generalization of the materials of public and economic institutions, the author’s experience of many years of participation in the preparation of draft laws and other legal acts and the study of their implementation. The data of social research and scientific materials on this topic were used. During the analysis of the problems it was possible to identify the system of legal regulators, through which the strategic and national goals of the country and individual areas of economic development are established. Changes oft en occur without deep justification and the introduction of a management mechanism, and as a result, the subjects of management seem to break away from the objects of influence and act in their own «management circle». An important vector of development of management is the active use of the human factor and the participation of citizens in the management of state affairs. In the meantime, the passivity of people and the diversity of their social and legal roles, which are always consistent with the principles of democracy and the rule of law, are observed. Public institutions may be left without the support of citizens. Meanwhile, the sociology of law and legal psychology contribute to an increase in the «zone» of lawful behavior and the effectiveness of legal decisions and actions. It is necessary to take into account the influence of the external environment on the legal consciousness and behavior of citizens. The behavioural mechanism of governance and law is changing due to an increasing share of new information technologies. Digitalization aff ects the competence of the authorities and the implementation of decisions, the style of management personnel, the overall regulatory space. Robotics programs expand the possibilities of narrowing accounting and financial transactions, increase the volume of forecasting and analytical management functions. It requires a consistent solution of legal, organizational and other tasks. The main thing is to improve the quality of management to achieve the strategic goals of the country.
In this paper, we regard public procurements as an instrument used by the state for indirect support of enterprises. In this context, we have posed the following questions: what place do the public procurements occupy in the system of relations between business and the state? Can we regard them as a component in "the system of exchanges" between enterprises and authorities? To what extent do public procurements are combined with measures for direct support of enterprises? To answer these questions, we used the data from a survey of enterprises conducted by the Institute for Industrial and Market Studies at the National Research University- Higher School of Economics in 2009. Our analysis gives us grounds to believe that as economic development of a region rises, direct support of enterprises declines giving way to indirect support by means of public procurements.
In 2004–2005 the Russian government started to implement the reform of public procurement. In order to decrease incentives to corruption and encourage competition, they established new procurement procedures. Meanwhile, according to the anecdotal evidence, since the decade of the reform, diff erent types of rent-seeking behavior have been still widespread in Russian procurement. In this article we conduct a comparative analysis of the procurement procedures in Federal Law 44 depending on the risks of rent-seeking behavior of public procurers and suppliers. We consider restrictions of competition to be indicators of corruption risks, i.e. the procurer’s rent-seeking behavior, and collusive practices (including imitation of collusion) and adverse selection to be indicators of the bidder’s rent-seeking behavior. At fi rst we describe Russian procurement procedures and then we employ the case-study in order to analyze in-depth risks of various forms of rent-seeking behavior. We fi nd that the risks of procurers’ rent-seeking behavior are negatively connected to the risks of suppliers’ rent-seeking. Some procurement procedures have more corruption risks, while others provide ample opportunities for collusion practices or an adverse selection. Basing on these results, we make recommendations to the regulator and to the government. First, the stimulating eff ect of monitoring will be higher under fi xed monitoring costs, if the regulator monitors more probable forms of rentseeking in each procurement procedure. Second, the social welfare will be highest, if the choice of procurement procedure is based not only on the product’s characteristics, but also on the market structure, including the risks of horizontal collusion.
This paper analyses the impact of governor’s tenure and his/her local ties on restriction of competition in the allocation of public procurement contracts. Basing on existing literature, we proposed that (1) tenure’s impact on competition in public procurement is non-linear and (2) it depends on governor’s pre-existing work experience in the region before he/she was elected/appointed. To test these hypotheses we employ contract-level data for the whole population of public contracts on road constructions in Russian regions during 2011-2014, and governor’s biographical information. Analysis showed that during first two terms of new governor in office the procurement competition increases and then starts to decrease. Such non-linear effect is especially prominent for governors-outsiders – the ones without pre-existing local ties. At the same time, this effect is not observable for the governors who came from the regional elite. Moreover, previous work experience in the region leads to higher procurement competition on average. We also showed that restriction of competition for governors-outsiders could not be explained by the increase of contract execution quality: execution delays increase linearly and the probability of execution terminating is not decreasing with the increase of governor’s tenure.
This article is a short review of the tools of budgeting used in practice and aimed at the result (BAR) on the federal level and the experience of a separate federation subject (the city of Moscow) in the implementation of the concept of perspective planning together with the use of the federal experience. The federal experience is represented by a short history of changes carried out in the budget legislation in the context of implementation and the use of the BAR tools with the indication of basic standard legal acts in the given sphere and marking out four BAR basic elements to carry out the reforms on the regional level. The Moscow experience review in carrying out the changes of the budget legislation is given in the context of four abovementioned BAR basic elements. In the final part of the article there are the recommendations given on the subsequent development of the planning system in the budget practice of the city aimed at the increase in the expenditures of budget funds.
The paper deals with the issue of the quality control over experts’ activities, the results of which are used for public administration purposes. The case in focus is the state control over temporary disability examination in the Russian Federation. This patient’s health evaluation provides the cause for sick leaves and ensures the functioning of the mandatory social insurance system. The study aims to reconstruct routine procedures and practices of external control over this medical activity and to reveal their inherent limitations. The empirical basis of analysis includes 31 semi-structured interviews with healthcare professionals and inspectors, laws and regulations of the Russian Federation, and accessible statistical data on the state inspections of medical organizations. It was revealed that in this case the initial complexity of assessing the expert’s service by its customer is complemented by the lack of clear rules of expertise, the separation of control authority between different state bodies, the purely documentary nature of inspections, as well as severe but hardly applied sanctions for low-quality temporary disability examination. The main problem is that the external control system, focused on verifying the correctness of filling out the documentation, cannot track whether all patients with sick leaves were indeed incapable of working and the insured events did take place.
The purpose of the article is to demonstrate how the use of administrative data can promptly and with low costs improve the accuracy and informativeness of official statistical indicators of labor market. The Russian official labor statistics is currently use the only two sources of statistical information: statistical reporting of enterprises and population surveys. The authors show that the available indicators are inconsistent with each other and do not meet the needs of users. The example of Moscow city shows that the available administrative data (data from the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation) allow both to increase the accuracy of the already calculated indicators of employment and wages through the full coverage of respondents, and to introduce new indicators that are currently not calculated by official statistics (wages of Russian citizens and foreigners, salaries of people working for several employers, etc.). The limitations of the Pension Fund’s data, as well as recommendations for the incorporating administrative data into the system of official statistics at the regional and national levels, are discussed.
The article describes the main features of the harmonized legal status of the regional audit institutions in Russia aft er the adoption of the Federal law of February 7, 2011 N 6-FL “On the common principles of the organization and operation of the regional and municipal control and accounts bodies”. The article pays special attention to the problems, arising due to the implementation of the abovementioned law.
The article makes an attempt to identify link between the models of public service and some effective methods of stimulating civil servants’ performance. Making use of the basic elements of the institutional theory helps draw a conclusion that development of the public civil service in accordance with the NPM models does not only take into account any positive externals for modeling informal relations, but ignores their historical, social and cultural role in the country. Key words: civil service, gifts exchange theory, institutional economy, stimulation of civil servants, models of bureaucracy.
The article features an analysis of a set of measures of government support for socially oriented nonprofit organizations (SO NPOs) enacted in 2009 – 2013 in Russia. The analysis is aimed at assessing this Russian regulatory framework designed to channel government support to SO NPOs by comparing it with tools of government employed to facilitate cross-sector partnership in the delivery of social services in selected foreign countries. For a theoretical framework of the investigation of interaction between government and SO NPOs we rely on the demand / supply model and in particular on the theory of market and government “failure”. The employed empirical material includes full-text versions of relevant Russian Federal norms and regulations, selected matching documents of foreign countries as well as data of sociological surveys of Russian NPOs conducted by NRU HSE. Firstly, principles used by Russian law-makers to define legally the subsector of SO NPOs are investigated. The analysis of tools of government support introduced by the enacted norms and regulations is then arranged by major form of support: financial, transfer of property rights, tax incentives etc. Data is featured on the scope of government support for SO NOPs at the federal level of government and in part at the level of regions. International comparisons follow. Overall the set of measures discussed constitutes a serious positive innovation in Russian government practices vis-à-vis SO NPOs. It shows substantial similarity to government tool kits employed to support NPOs elsewhere in the world. This relates to criteria of legal eligibility for support and to the composition of the tool kit, which includes government subsidies / grants, tax incentives etc. There remains room for expansion of the Russian tool kit. In implementing new legal norms attention must be paid to keeping administrative barriers for access to government support reasonably low, in particular for small NPOs constituting a majority in the Russian nonprofit sector.