Author shows how and why the method of radical interpretation proposed by D. Davidson can solve the problems that are ormulated in a variety of skeptical scenarios. In particular, the method of radical interpretation renders the Cartesian skeptical scenario (both in its traditional and recent versions) obscure and even deprives it of its status of a philosophical problem as such. Appealing to the diberence between intended and unintended lies, one can see how the global skeptical scenario gets solved in both cases. This paper also extends Willard Van Orman Quine’s argument for an expanded version of a naturalized epistemology by introducing social factors to this approach. In addition, there are always at least two necessary limitations imposed by communication on our hypotheses about knowledge and delusion.
In the 19th century Germany, there was a persistent interest in the history of philosophy. Schneider (1999) lists 148 original works in the history of philosophy by 114 authors published from 1810 through 1899. The scale of this historiographic tradition offers an opportunity to apply Digital Humanities methodology (distant reading, formal analysis, and innovative visualisations) to the case. In this paper, we intended to show how the Canon of the German philosophy history had been created and changed over time.
To reveal the patterns of attention to the 19th century philosophers we undertook a formal analysis of 77 tables of contents for German textbooks in the history of philosophy. On the basis of this analysis we, using biological metaphors, united philosophers in three groups, dominant, subdominant, and recedent ones. Our analysis not only confirms the domination of the 'Great Four' (Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel), but helps us to draw a more nuanced picture of the period under consideration. In 1830s – 1840s, the vision of the impact of some philosophers was highly polarised. E.g., in some textbooks, I. F. Herbart was completely ignored, while in the others his ideas were treated in more pages than those of Hegel's. After 1860, Kant's writings attract more and more of attention. His share of pages grows, while for the majority of philosophers it declines. Fichte, Shelling, and Hegel lose nearly half of their share and come closer to the subdominant group of Herbart, Schleiermacher, and Schopenhauer. The original visualisation techniques help us to graphically present the changes in the Canon of the 19th century German philosophy.
The article is devoted to the analysis of different aspects of representation of past and future wars, as well as the portrayal of the enemies in the “Pioneer” magazine. In the 1930s, these subjects and images became an important element of Soviet education, forming the official narrative. They were repeated in the summaries of party and state documents presented to the readers. Furthermore, they invaded works of fiction and the speech patterns of the pioneers themselves. As a result of this—by the time the war started—a whole generation acquired an understanding of what they were fighting for, who the enemy was and what was at stake. Using materials from the “Pioneer” magazine from 1932–1941, one can see how publications aimed at children were educating their readers, forming their consciousness, and preparing the youth to fight a war with the capitalist states. Magazines published for Soviet pioneers in the 1930s have not yet been researched to a satisfactory degree. Researchers usually focus their attention on the continuity vis-a-vis previous traditions and practices, pointing to trends that were common for pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary publications. These studies are usually limited to the period of the early 1930s and do not cover events of the second half of that decade, putting emphasis on the formation of the pioneer press instead. This article is broadening our view of Soviet press for children, helping to better understand the causes of heroic behavior of the young generation mobilized to defend their country during the Great Patriotic War.
In this paper, I offer a reading of Shaun Monson’s documentary Earthlings to analyse ideological assumptions and philosophical contradictions the arguments for vegetarianism presented in this film. I approach the documentary using the concept of the social contract between the film and the viewer. The contract includes the following three statements: firstly, the process of film perception leads to a particular emotional reaction; secondly, this reaction implies that the viewer takes on a particular ethical stance; thirdly, this ethical stance becomes a precondition for action. The film’s authors naturalize the connection between these three positions.
In addition, I analyse the philosophical assumptions that form the basis of the argument for vegetarianism. Those assumptions are the following: the differences between animals and humans are not relevant for ethics and appeal to fact can lay the foundation for ethical imperatives. I argue that the first assumption is logically wrong and that the second assumption contains hidden speciesism even though it is supposed to combat it. I also argue that the film’s authors propose the viewer no detailed description of alternative attitudes to animals while those explanations are able to help the viewer to take an ethical stance and act accordingly regarding currently accepted ways of dealing with animals.
The paper is based on the research that was funded by the Faculty of Philosophy of the National Research University Higher School of Economics in 2013.
The article analyzes several crucial aspects of Johann Gustav Droysen’s theory of historiography (as presented in the collection of his lectures published under the title Historik). The significance and reception of Droysen’s legacy in contemporary historiography are examined primarily in the American and Russian contexts. The fundamental features of Droysen’s theory of historiography are then identified with emphasis on: validation of the autonomy of history as a science; radical constructivism; moderate relativism; presentism; and the extension of the subject matter of hermeneutics to existential and anthropological issues. The main part of the article is devoted to Droysen’s institutional theory and maintains that Historik provides more than a theory and methodology of historiography by also advancing an original institutional theory which serves as a direct link between Hegel’s philosophy and current social and political concepts. Droysen’s position on Hegel’s philosophy is considered, and the derivation of “the ethical world,” Droysen’s the principal category for institutional analysisis traced back to Hegel. Droysen’s theory of the state, which identifies it as the only source of legitimate violence and a mechanism for neutralizing conflicts in civil society and distinguishes between the notions of “power” and “violence,” is treated in detail. Three main aspects of Droysen’s institutional theory are discussed. First, there is an analysis of his formal theoretical understanding of the concept of an “institution” as it compares to the basic modern philosophical and theoretical definitions of that concept. Then, the main substantive features of his institutional theory are examined. These include the three types of institutions (natural, ideal and practical), and the distinction between them will later play a prominent role in modern social theory and sociolog)'. Finally, Droysen’s account of the institutional dynamics of modernity is explicated as a taut equilibrium between the puruist of stability by institutions and the disruption of their stability by normative reflection and criticism.