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Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 163
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Article
Fomin I. Semiotica. 2019. Vol. 2019. No. 230. P. 327-340.

In 1976 Richard Dawkins coined the term meme as a way to metaphorically project bio-evolutionary principles upon the processes of cultural and social development. The works of Dawkins and of some other enthusiasts had contributed to a rise in popularity of the concept of memetics ("study of memes"), but the interest to this new field started to decline quite soon. The conceptual apparatus of memetics was based on a number of quasi-biological terms, but the emerging discipline failed to go beyond those initial metaphors. This article is an attempt to rebuild the toolkit of memetics with the help of the more fundamental concepts taken from semiotics and to propose a synthetic conceptual framework connecting genetics and memetics, in which semiotics is used as the transdisciplinary methodology for both disciplines. The concept of sign is used as the meta-lingual equivalent for both the concepts of gene and meme. In the most general understanding, sign is a thing which stands for another thing. In genetics this translates into gene that is a section of DNA that stands for the algorithm of how a particular biomolecule is built. In memetics, the similar principle works in meme that is a thing that stands for the rules of how a particular cultural practice is performed.

Added: Jun 30, 2018
Article
Zaporozhets O., Kolesnik A. Journal of Cultural Geography. 2020.

 This paper focuses on the Tsoi Wall in Moscow, an iconic place on Russia’s music map that appeared in Moscow in 1990 in memory of the cult Soviet rock musician Viktor Tsoi, to develop a framework for studying non-auratic music place—that is, places that are not connected with the biographies of musicians or musical events, but emerge directly from the experiences of visitors and fans. These places are constantly negotiated and only lightly formalized, but are nevertheless enduring. To analyze this type of place, we propose a concept of institutionalization “in becoming.” The case of the Tsoi Wall reveals that light formalization (vague and changing positions and rules, and openness to different interpretations of a place and ways of using it) leads to the recognition of the place as a significant one and to its popularity. We put institutionalization “in becoming” in a wider context and juxtapose it with well-studied musical places in Europe and the US.

Added: Dec 13, 2018
Article
Zaretsky Y. Social Sciences. 2019. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 114-135.

This article examines the widespread practice of writing auto- biographies (forms of extended curricula vitae) by Soviet citizens. Special attention is given to the real social circumstances that fashioned the narrative structure and content of these life stories and the changes prompted by the political and ideological changes in the USSR. The article also examines strategies of composing autobiographies used by individual authors and draws parallels between the practice of writing these autobiographies and the practice of Christian confession. The article’s general conclusion is that these specific personal testimonies were addressed to the Soviet state and that their composition was part of the mechanism of creating “The New Soviet Man.”

Added: Sep 3, 2019
Article
Dragoş Gh. Năstăsoiu. Revue Roumaine d'Histoire de l'Art. Séries Beaux-Arts. 2008. Vol. XLV. P. 3-22.
Added: Oct 30, 2018
Article
Dragoş Gh. Năstăsoiu. Annual of Medieval Studies at CEU. 2010. Vol. 16. P. 93-119.
Added: Oct 30, 2018
Article
Caroli D., Saburova T., Eklof B. History of Education and Children's Literature. 2018. Vol. XIII. No. 1. P. 685-701.

During the 14th and 15th October 2017, a conference organized by Ben Eklof (Indiana University), Igor Fedyukin (Higher School of Economics (Moscow), Tatiana Saburova (Higher School of Economics, Indiana University), Elena Vishlenkova (Higher School of Economics, Moscow) has  been held at the Indiana University Europe Gateway at CIEE Global Institute (Berlin) with the aim to discuss new narratives about the history of Russian education, aroused by James C. Scott’s books, Seeking like a State. How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (1998), in particular on the basis of the concept of “high modernism” in its effort to redesign society and of the role of knowledge in the context of social and economic changes.

Added: Jun 14, 2018
Article
Gasparyan D. Constructivist Foundations. 2020. P. 87-103.

Context • Recent decades have seen the development of new branches of semiotics, including biosemiotics, cognitive semiotics, and cybersemiotics. An important feature of these concepts is the question of the relationship between linguistic and extralinguistic reality; in particular, the constructivist question of the role of observation and the observer in semiosis.

Problem •  Our understanding of the observer’s role in the framework of second-order cybernetics is incomplete without understanding where in the observation the significant activity, semiosis, takes place. By describing this mechanism, we see that semiosis has the structure of an eigenform. In this article I will concentrate on linguistic semiosis, and will illuminate the role of the sign and interpretation, emphasizing the scheme and logic of this process.

Method • I use theoretical and conceptual methods of argumentation, such as logical (deductive) and philosophical (phenomenological) proofs and thought experiments.

Results • This research explores the importance of including the interpretation (via the observer) in the process of signification, and maintains both the reciprocal connections between all three elements and their cyclic nature. I apply this approach to show that semiosis works according to the principle of an eigenform because of the cyclic and recursive nature of semiotic interpretation.

Implications •  My conclusions have productive implications for epistemic theories, linguistic theories, philosophy of language, theories of semiology, and semantics.

Constructivist content • Radical constructivism claims that we do not have access to a mind-independent world. It considers knowledge to be the ordering of experience to cope with situations in a satisfactory way.

Added: Jul 3, 2018
Article
Polinsky M. Sign Language Studies. 2018. Vol. 18. No. 3. P. 412-428.

A heritage language is a minority language used in a context where a different language is dominant in the community. Codas (children of Deaf adults) who sign but may be dominant in the spoken language of their community present an interesting case due to the added difference in spoken/signed modality. The relatively new field of research on heritage sign languages builds upon our knowledge of phenomena at play when both the heritage language (HL) and the community language use spoken modality (e.g., varying degrees of proficiency in HL, interference of the community language on HL), as well as issues specific to balanced signed/spoken language bilinguals (e.g., the tendency to use blending, by which is meant simultaneously signing and speaking rather than code- switching). One aspect crucial to the study of heritage language is that of assessment.

Two useful methods used for assessing production are (1) eliciting narratives on the basis of picture books or silent video clips and then measuring the data for features such as the speech rate or number of errors and (2) cloze tests. Methods are also under development to assess comprehension and perception in signed languages. Studying heritage sign languages promises to provide us new insight into strong tendencies already established in heritage spoken languages, such as speakers’ difficulty with optionality and ambiguity, as well as speakers’ better command of verbs in their heritage language than of nouns.

 

Added: Jun 11, 2018
Article
Davletshin A., Lacadena García-Gallo A. Revista Espanola de Antropologia Americana. 2019. Vol. 49. P. 301-328.

The present paper examines the Nahuatl system of numerical notation and its numerals, from a grammatological perspective, as an integral part of the Nahuatl logosyllabic writing system. Reading values for the numerals are identified and their corresponding transliteration rules are proposed. The number of ways Nahuatl people used to write numbers is striking: three different systems for numerals from 1 to 19, two signs for 20, three forms to represent quantities above 20, three principles to register accounts, etc. This paper shows that Nahuatl numerical signs function as logographs in some contexts and as notational signs in others.

Added: Oct 24, 2019
Article
Braginskaya N. Keria: Studia Latina et Graeca. 2018. Vol. 20. No. 3. P. 27-40.

During the period of the so-called Silver age of Russian culture, three outstanding translators of the Greek tragedy, Tadeusz Zieliński, Innokentiy Annensky and Vyacheslav Ivanov, put forward the idea of the third, Slavonic Renaissance – the new rebirth of Antiquity, with the leading role of the Slavic peoples, particularly the Russians. They claimed that while the first Renaissance was Romanesque and the second German (in the era of Winckelmann, Goethe and German classical philology), the third one was supposed to be Slavonic. In the early Soviet period, the idea of Slavonic Renaissance brought about some unexpected results, first of all precisely in the sphere of theater. The paper focuses on how symbolist ideas got to be expressed in the performances of classical tragedies. Ivanov authored the expression “creative self-performance” that later, in the Soviet era, acquired the meaning of “non-professional performance,” such as comedies staged by “sailors and the Red Army soldiers,” Adrian Piotrovsky’s “amateur theatre,” and the pioneer reconstruction of the scenic performance of Aristophanes’ comedies done by Sergey Radlov, Adrian Piotrovsky, and others.

Added: Jan 29, 2019
Article
Edmond J., Fischer F., Mertens M. et al. ERCIM News. 2017. No. 111. P. 25-26.

As it begins its second decade of development, the Digital Research Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities (DARIAH) continues to forge an innovative approach to improving support for and the vibrancy of humanities research in Europe.

Added: Dec 18, 2018
Article
Гаспарян Д. Э. Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета. Философия и конфликтология. 2020. № 1.

In this article it is shown that in some theories defending the non-reductive nature of the first-person perspective a not very consistent attitude to this perspective may be found. Such theories are related by the author to a so-called moderate naturalism. The article shows the difference between moderate and radical naturalism. Radical naturalism completely abandons the idea of subjectivity as unobservable from a third-person perspective. On the contrary, moderate naturalism defends the irreducibility of subjectivity, but believes subjectivity to be a part of the nature. As a case of moderate naturalism, the article considers the approaches of L. Baker and T. Metzinger. Using their approaches to the first-person perspective as an example, it is shown that in case of certain work strategies focused on the first-person perspective, it is possible that a so-called description error may appear, by which a description error of subjectivity – when it is placed in the world on the rights of a part of nature, according to the laws of which it exists – is understood. The logic of this error points to one of L. Wittgenstein's statements about the incorrect placement of the eye in the perspective of the eye view itself. If the first-person perspective is introduced as a point of view (or a point of observation), then its subsequent shift to the observation result area leads to description error. If there is no observation, as well as no viewpoint, we lose the very idea of first-person perspective and actually take the position of radical naturalism.

Added: Dec 5, 2019
Article
Гринчева Н. М. Museum International. 2018. No. 70 (1-2). P. 166-175.

This article explores the ‘GuggenTube’ phenomenon, which resulted from a collaboration between Google and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation to celebrate the five-year anniversary of the YouTube channel. A world-recognised museum of modern art, Guggenheim is known as the first museum franchise network, which comprises a main museum in New York (1939), and active branches in Venice (1951) and Bilbao (1997), as well as a structure in Abu Dhabi, forthcoming in 2019. Guggenheim is also famous for its numerous collaborations with transnational corporations, such as BMW, Hugo Boss, UBS Wealth Management, Delta Airlines to name but a few.1 In this article, I will look closely at one such collaboration: the YouTube Play project, developed in partnership with the world’s largest transnational media company, Google. YouTube Play brought popular video culture to the museum space and stirred the interest of museum critics and audiences around the world. I will describe the (overwhelmingly positive) reception of the YouTube Play project, only to delve deeper into the content of online conversations, which shows that users were, in fact, challenging the Guggenheim’s authority to represent contemporary digital art. It is interesting to note that this, in turn, led to a more philosophical reflection on the nature and purpose of art. All in all, I will argue that the GuggenTube phenomenon was the first initiative of its kind to successfully engage audiences on an international scale, but, perhaps even more significantly, contributed to expanding the museum’s space beyond traditional artistic and geographical boundaries.

Added: Oct 2, 2019
Article
Pavlovskaya G., Lord A. Journal of Language and Education. 2018. Vol. 4. No. 3. P. 69-76.

The article is aimed at highlighting the sociocultural factors a teacher/an IELTS instructor should consider preparing Russian students for the IELTS exam. The main focus of the study described further in the article was made on four speech functions most frequently used at the IELTS Speaking Test. These speech functions are explaining and paraphrasing, expressing personal opinion, providing personal information, and summarizing. The study aims to question the assumption that the problems arising in the use of these speech functions are provoked by the students’ low language level and to investigate if there are any sociocultural issues connected with the use of the above-mentioned speech functions influencing students’ performance during the IELTS Speaking Test. The study was conducted among first-year students at Higher School of Economics (HSE) at the Faculty of Computer Science. To see the problem from a different perspective the study involved not only the first-year students who seem to struggle with the speech functions but also their English teachers who can provide trustworthy first-hand information on the problems the students frequently face. The results of the study demonstrate that the cause of problems students encounter using the speech functions should not be attributed only to their language knowledge as the majority of interviewed teachers do. The way students tend to explain, paraphrase, summarize, express their opinion and provide personal information is culturally defined which influences students’ ability to perform these functions effectively. To help Russian students avoid sociocultural problems preparing for the IELTS Speaking Test a teacher/an IELTS instructor should aim to increase students’ sociocultural awareness of the pitfalls in the use of the essential speech functions and sociocultural competence in a foreign language.The article is aimed at highlighting the sociocultural factors a teacher/an IELTS instructor should consider preparing Russian students for the IELTS exam. The main focus of the study described further in the article was made on four speech functions most frequently used at the IELTS Speaking Test. These speech functions are explaining and paraphrasing, expressing personal opinion, providing personal information, and summarizing. The study aims to question the assumption that the problems arising in the use of these speech functions are provoked by the students’ low language level and to investigate if there are any sociocultural issues connected with the use of the above-mentioned speech functions influencing students’ performance during the IELTS Speaking Test. The study was conducted among first-year students at Higher School of Economics (HSE) at the Faculty of Computer Science. To see the problem from a different perspective the study involved not only the first-year students who seem to struggle with the speech functions but also their English teachers who can provide trustworthy first-hand information on the problems the students frequently face. The results of the study demonstrate that the cause of problems students encounter using the speech functions should not be attributed only to their language knowledge as the majority of interviewed teachers do. The way students tend to explain, paraphrase, summarize, express their opinion and provide personal information is culturally defined which influences students’ ability to perform these functions effectively. To help Russian students avoid sociocultural problems preparing for the IELTS Speaking Test a teacher/an IELTS instructor should aim to increase students’ sociocultural awareness of the pitfalls in the use of the essential speech functions and sociocultural competence in a foreign language.The article is aimed at highlighting the sociocultural factors a teacher/an IELTS instructor should consider preparing Russian students for the IELTS exam. The main focus of the study described further in the article was made on four speech functions most frequently used at the IELTS Speaking Test. These speech functions are explaining and paraphrasing, expressing personal opinion, providing personal information, and summarizing. The study aims to question the assumption that the problems arising in the use of these speech functions are provoked by the students’ low language level and to investigate if there are any sociocultural issues connected with the use of the above-mentioned speech functions influencing students’ performance during the IELTS Speaking Test. The study was conducted among first-year students at Higher School of Economics (HSE) at the Faculty of Computer Science. To see the problem from a different perspective the study involved not only the first-year students who seem to struggle with the speech functions but also their English teachers who can provide trustworthy first-hand information on the problems the students frequently face. The results of the study demonstrate that the cause of problems students encounter using the speech functions should not be attributed only to their language knowledge as the majority of interviewed teachers do. The way students tend to explain, paraphrase, summarize, express their opinion and provide personal information is culturally defined which influences students’ ability to perform these functions effectively. To help Russian students avoid sociocultural problems preparing for the IELTS Speaking Test a teacher/an IELTS instructor should aim to increase students’ sociocultural awareness of the pitfalls in the use of the essential speech functions and sociocultural competence in a foreign language.

Added: Oct 4, 2018
Article
Solovyova A. Studia Mythologica Slavica. 2019. No. 15. P. 169-192.

This article aims to introduce to a wider audience the special and diverse world of Mongolian ritual poetry. Despite the effects of the socialist era and the intensive changes brought about by contact with global culture more recently, contemporary Mongolian society has still preserved a significant space for traditional lifestyle and worldview. The characteristics of this region were built up by the weaving together of different ethnic and religious traditions (including Zoroastrism, Tengrism, local Shamanic traditions, and different schools of Tibetan Buddhism), as well as from other historical and cultural features. All of these have contributed to the unique skein of images and meanings dwelling in the world of Mongolian ritual poetry, invocations, prayers, verbal charms - a world manifest in everyday life and practice. In this article, I shall discuss some basic types of Mongolian ritual poetry, focusing on the genres performed by non-professional lay people, dom shivshleg. My paper is based on archival and published Mongolian sources, as well as on fieldwork data collected by the author in different parts of Mongolia.

Added: Oct 16, 2019
Article
Бендерский И. И. Social Sciences. 2019. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 124-143.

This article analyzes Leo Tolstoy’s later story Master and Man seeking to recreate the biographical, esthetic and religious-philosophical prerequisites of the creation of this masterpiece. A certain weariness of numerous isolated studies of Tolstoy’s life, philosophy, political views, the language and style of his prose prompt an attempt at a more synthetic approach to an artistic text. Already his contemporaries in the 19th century had learned to separate Tolstoy the thinker and Tolstoy the artist. The modern reader too feels comfortable with this separation. However, in recent decades Tolstoy studies have been aimed at bringing out the constituting principles characterizing Tolstoy’s thought as a whole. This article attempts to see an art work as a form of recording and conveying the author’s experience. The experience is linked with concrete facts of the writer’s biography and the preceding literary tradition. However, this study focuses on the circumstances of the transmission of the author’s experience to the hero and finally to the reader. A scrutiny of these circumstances suggests a new reading of the Russian classic’s creative biography from the 1850s (when he wrote his early “journeys of discovery”) until 1895 (when Master and Man was published) as a story of dramatic relationships within the author-hero-reader triangle, where no experience is solely “literary” or solely “internal” as everything experienced and committed to paper becomes an object of their shared experience.

Added: Jul 12, 2019
Article
Shmakova A. S. Novosibirsk State University Bulletin. Series: History and Philology. 2017. Vol. 16. No. 10. P. 65-70.

This article, based on the philosophical-sociological approach to the consideration of traditional culture and on the theory of sociocultural stratification declares that a complex, multilayered structure of society provides an appropriate protection to the national culture and through it, to national art. The Korean aristocratic society guided by Confucian standards and patterns since ancient times was predisposed to create the certain range of elite subcultures (munin, hwawon, neoconfucian philosophers and intellectuals), similar to each other, preset to reproduce and translate the values created in mainstream Chinese culture and to form its own specific directions, genres and styles through medieval times. Modernization and westernization that began at the end of the 19th century with its new challenges and objectives contributed to the disintegration of syncretism, typical for the Far Eastern culture and art of Medieval Times, and, as a result, the disintegration of elite subcultures.

Added: Oct 2, 2019
Article
Kuleva M., Masalova A. Zivot Umjetnosti. 2019.

This article explores the way of evaluation of artistic recognition by analysing the materials of critics writings. Focusing on the post-war unofficial contemporary art scene in Soviet Union and Post-soviet Russia, we put an emphasis on mechanisms of legitimation and dynamics of artistic prestige in the restricted field of underground art. The research reveals major patterns for not only the recognitional process of unofficial Soviet art, but also discuss the role of criticism in the transitional period in a Post-Soviet republic.  Politics turbulence caused by the dissolution of Soviet Union, facilitated radical changes in conditions for artistic production and transformation.  By employing methods of social network analysis (SNA) we reconstruct and evaluate interconnections between unofficial post-war artists and critics, working in three the most significant paper media in the 1990s.

Added: Nov 1, 2019
Article
Kalinin I. TLS-THE TIMES LITERARY SUPPLEMENT. 2017. No. 5942. P. 17-19.

Perhaps nothing strips bare the irony of history quite so scandalously as the anniversary of a revolution. Revolutions are meant to halt and reset the motion of history, to transform the world by making the ideal coincide with the real. The ceremonial logic of the anniversary, by contrast, stresses the forward-facing and linear march of time; underpinning it is the desire to tame history through chronology. The anniversary of a revolution implies the triumph of order over spontaneity, it implies retaliation on the part of the state, which gains a retrospective power over everything that might throw statehood into question. Anniversary celebrations turn the historical event of the revolution into a routine, into a carefully acted-out spectacle, channelling its creatively destructive energy into social, political and cultural rituals that entrench the status quo. On one level, the anniversary of a revolution will always be counter-revolutionary. This is so even when we are talking about a state which is the ideological heir to a revolution. But this irony becomes all the stronger when an anniversary must be marked by a state holding an ambivalent relationship with the past ushered in by that revolution.

Added: Oct 30, 2019
Article
Kuleva M. International Journal of Cultural Studies. 2019. Vol. 22. No. 2. P. 281-297.

This paper investigates creative work that now takes place in newly-established cultural institutions in Moscow non-governmental MoCAs and art-centres situated in refurbished Soviet buildings where mostly defunct, socialist-era factories had been located. The exploration of creative work in Russian art-centers is of particular interest for the debates on creative labour because it promises to record the transition of contemporary art market from Soviet cultural monopoly to the market economy in the conditions of the real-time formation of new informal standards of cultural production. The present paper evaluates what informality does mean within these new standards of creative work organization. Although the new art-centres have declared that they will produce culture ‘in a new and innovative way’, they still preserve in their functioning many residues of the ‘old system’ such as the practices of ‘blat’, favour-swapping and clientelism, wages-in-pockets, pilfering and dubious sales of art collections. The paper is based on an empirical study conducted in 2016 and includes 25 in-depth interviews with cultural workers employed full-time and 20 live observations in offices and exhibition areas of the art-centres.

Added: Jan 17, 2018
Article
Korotayev A., Slinko E., Meshcherina K. et al. Cross-Cultural Research. 2020. No. 2. P. 1-35.

The current paper investigates the relation between values and modernization applying some elements of the method proposed by Inglehart and Welzel (the authors of the Human Development Sequence Theory) to the data of Shalom Schwartz. The values survey by Schwartz specifies two main value axes, namely conservation vs. openness to change and self-transcendence vs. self-enhancement. Our research has revealed that the correlation between these two value axes differs in its direction when estimated for “macro-Europe” (that includes Europe and former settlement colonies of North and South America and Oceania) and “Afroasia” (that includes Asia and Africa). In “macro-Europe” we deal with a significant positive correlation between openness to change and self-transcendence, while in “Afroasia” this correlation is strong, significant, and negative. We investigate the possible impact of modernization on this difference. To do this, we approximate modernization through such indicators as GDP per capita and the proportions of the labor force employed in various sectors of economy. We find that in both megazones modernization is accompanied by increasing openness to change values. As for the self-transcendence/self-enhancement axis, we propose two possible explanations of the different dynamics observed in Europe and in “the East” (Asia and North Africa), namely 1) that Eastern and Western societies find themselves at different modernization stages, and 2) that this difference is accounted for by different civilizational patterns. Further analysis suggests that the latter explanation might be more plausible.

Added: Aug 2, 2019