The special factor determining a science development is the arrangement of its conceptual categories. This is completely relevant to theoretical issues of ability and giftedness studies. In present article based on the analysis of the researches, most notably native classical psychologists, and our empirical data the definition of theoretical constructs “ability” and “giftedness” is provided. The approach to determining the nature of ability is founded. The ability is considered in three dimensions: as inherent, subject-activity and personal. It is highlighted that the abilities of the human being (personality) should be considered simultaneously in three dimensions. In each dimension at that it would be shown the irregularity and heterochrony of their (abilities) development. This helps to understand the nature of a complete process of ability formation and development. The suggested concept for ability structure makes it possible for answer the basic methodological question about the relationship between inclinations and abilities. It concerns the consideration of the ability of an individual as the properties of physiological functional systems that implement certain mental functions. It is shown that the ability development is based on a definite natural foundation by completing with intellectual operations acquisition (abilities of subject of an activity), and being under control and directing impact of the motivation and moral qualities (abilities of a personality). Other implications of a proposed view on the nature of ability are discussed in the article. Given that the giftedness in majority of researches considered as qualitatively feature specificity combination of abilities that determines the success in a certain activity and based on the proposed definition of ability the concept of “giftedness” is defined. Some principal issues of giftedness theory is addressed to considerations.
The research project aimed to investigate the associations of cultural values (collectivism and individualism) with emotional expression rules in participants from two cultures, Russia (N = 228, aged 17 to 29, 68.9% female) and Azerbaijan (N = 196, aged 17 to 27, 69.9% female). Based on multidimensional scaling of the DRAI by D. Matsumoto, we proposed a circumplex model of emotional display rules and developed a new scoring procedure which provides reliable indices of authentic emotional expression (preference for emotional expression vs suppression) and the type of expression modification (preference for affectation vs deamplification of emotions). We hypothesized that 1) vertical collectivism (subordination of personal interests to those of others, more characteristic of Azerbaijan) would be associated with emotional suppression, in contrast to horizontal collectivism (social cohesion, interdependence, more characteristic of Russia); 2) horizontal individualism (emphasizing individual uniqueness and difference from others, more characteristic of Azerbaijan) would be associated with stronger affectation of emotions, in contrast to vertical individualism (emphasizing rivalry and competition, more characteristic of Russia). We discovered that: 1) participants from Russia culture report higher authentic expression of emotions (they are more open in expressing surprise, happiness, sadness, and fear, although less open in expressing contempt), compared to the Azerbaijani; 2) participants from Azerbaijan are more likely to display their emotions (particularly sadness, happiness, and fear) with affectation, compared to Russians. In the Russian culture horizontal collectivism was associated with authentic emotional expression, whereas in the Azerbaijani culture vertical collectivism was associated with expressive suppression and horizontal individualism was associated with affectation of emotions. In the Russian culture the value of emotional control mediated the association of collectivism with authentic expression of positive emotions in the presence of others.
Theoretical model disclosing the occurrence of different systems of thought due to different cultural practices and explaining essential distinctions between East Asians and Westerners is presented in the article. The authors find East Asians to be holistic. attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it. making relatively little use of categories and formal logic. and relying on "dialectical" reasoning. Westerners are more analytic. paying attention primarily to the object and the categories to which it belongs. They use rules. including formal logic. to understand object's behavior. Described types of cognitive processes are embedded in different naive metaphysical systems and tacit epistemologies which are typical for the representatives of the mentioned cultures. The hypotheses is put forward that the origin of these differences is traceable to markedly different social systems. Theoretical approach and evidence presented in the article call into question long-held assumptions about basic (and universal) cognitive processes and even about the appropriateness of the process-content distinction.
The results of empirical study of correlation of socio-cultural and personal characteristics with the attitudes to their own health among Russian (n - 103) and Chinese (n = 182) students are presented. There were cross-cultural differences: Chinese students have higher indices of social capital and long-term orientation while Russian students show autonomous motivation of behavior with respect to their health. Women's attitudes to their health in both samples were more positive then men's ones. Such indices of social capital as the level and radius of trust, significance of ethnic and civic identity are mated with positive attitudes towards health in both samples. Autonomous motivation of behavior is correlated with positive attitudes to health in Russian sample.
The paper discusses the evolution of the ideas of Tikhomirov’s semantic theory of thinking as they are re- lated to studies of choice and decision making. We argue that Tikhomirov’s theory is useful and heuristic in addressing key challenges in this scientific field. The theoretical model of the intellectual and personal regulation of choice based on Tikhomirov’s theory is described in the context of a specific study. The study was aimed at investigating the effects of different processes of intellectual and personal regulation at different stages of choice (as a productive decision) and revealing the structuring function of motiva- tion in the regulation of rational choice.
Approbation of Russian language version of the Dirty Dozen questionnaire aimed at measurement of sub- clinical personal traits forming so-called Dark Triad – Machiavellianism, Psychopathy, Narcissism – was the purpose of the work. 362 participants aged 17–62 (M = 24.68, SD = 7.16; 123 male and и 239 female) took part in the research. Diagnostics methods Dark Dozen, Narcissistic traits, Mac-scale, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, Scale of Psychological Reasonableness, T.V. Kornilova’s New Ques- tionnaire “Tolerance for Ambiguity”, McLain’s MSTAT-II, D.V. Lusin’s EmIn Questionnaire, A.V. Kar- pov’s Reflexivity Questionnaire and R. Sternberg’s method “Creative Titles” were used in the research. Three factors structure of the Dirty Dozen Questionnaire was confirmed by means of confirmatory factor analysis; its scales showed satisfactory reliability and convergent validity (with respect to other question- naires). It was shown that levels of psychopathy and machiavellianism are higher in men than women. Psychopathy correlates negatively with emotional intelligence and scales of psychological reasonable- ness but positively – with creativity and tolerance for ambiguity. The results make it possible to state that the Dark Dozen is the first valid Russian language diagnostics instrument for simultaneous measurement levels of personal characteristics of Dark Triad.
The importance to study and evaluate living environments, particularly home environments is discussed. It is noted that home (exactly dwelling) is a crucial environmental and social resource to maintain psychological well-being. The concept of friendliness of the home environment is introduced. Based on the theoretical review as well as using the laddering interview, the actualization constructs technique (G. Kelly’s minimum context method) and the endless sentences method there were identified 55 constructs underlying developed by authors questionnaire ‘Functionality of dwelling environment’. In total, 592 respondents participated in the survey (221 male, 371 female, with average age of 16.3, Me = 18.4, SD = 5.2). The four factor structure of the questionnaire fits empiric data best and consists of 4 scales: Usability, Development, Stability and Security. The primary psychometric characteristics of the tool are described. The prospects of its application are sketched.
The article aims to discuss the findings of investigation of such fundamental psychological issues as ‘what is a human thought’, ‘what is a mechanism of generation’, and ‘what is a structure of human thought’. The neurophysiological mechanisms that ensure the thought generation are addressed to. The definition of thought as a need-emotional-intensional substance is provided. The thought-image and thought-word relationships are exposed. The analysis of thought and image intellectualization is dealt with. The need to introduce the ‘thought’ into the categorial apparatus of psychology is argued.
The study is devoted to the problem of unresolved contradictions of personality in movement towards maturity during different age periods. It has been aimed at identifying different types of unresolved contradictions of mature personality as well as ways of dealing with them. Theoretical and methodological context for studying the above problem are studies of modern integral trends in methodology of personality, the concept of general personology, the periodization of life development of the personality, studies of the life of the personality, the concept of life relations and life contradictions of the personality as well as the concept of development of Self and personal maturity. During the study there have been used such methods as modelling, hermeneutic, biographic, reflexive and pshychodiagnostic. There has been developed the theoretical model of studying unresolved contradictions of personality and the method of reflexive biographical interview. There has been conducted the empirical study which lead to discovery of conscious unresolved contradiction of mature personality mostly pertaining to childhood and current ages. There have also been discovered dominating types of unresolved contradictions such as I-want vs I-reach, Other-in-Self vs Self-in-Other, I-potential vs I-reachable and Value-of-Other vs Value-of-Self. There have been defined leading ways in which the mature personality deals with unresolved contradictions such as hanging the contradiction, not finding adequate resolution to contradiction with the intention to find it, living through defeat in attempts to resolve contradiction. There have been discovered dynamic impact on life, subjective acceptance and opportunity of active reflection of unresolved contradictions of mature personality.
Psychological sovereignty is considered as a state of person’s boundaries in different everyday life
spheres providing a social and personal well-being. The new version of Personal Sovereignty Questionnaire
(PSQ-2010) is developed and described; psychometric properties and results of CFA are shown.
Content validity, divergent validity, and consistency are tested on the sample of N = 1073 respondents.
A system of individual correlates of sovereignty is described. The questionnaire has been standardized,
profi le forms have been developed.