Theoretical model disclosing the occurrence of different systems of thought due to different cultural practices and explaining essential distinctions between East Asians and Westerners is presented in the article. The authors find East Asians to be holistic. attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it. making relatively little use of categories and formal logic. and relying on "dialectical" reasoning. Westerners are more analytic. paying attention primarily to the object and the categories to which it belongs. They use rules. including formal logic. to understand object's behavior. Described types of cognitive processes are embedded in different naive metaphysical systems and tacit epistemologies which are typical for the representatives of the mentioned cultures. The hypotheses is put forward that the origin of these differences is traceable to markedly different social systems. Theoretical approach and evidence presented in the article call into question long-held assumptions about basic (and universal) cognitive processes and even about the appropriateness of the process-content distinction.
The results of empirical study of correlation of socio-cultural and personal characteristics with the attitudes to their own health among Russian (n - 103) and Chinese (n = 182) students are presented. There were cross-cultural differences: Chinese students have higher indices of social capital and long-term orientation while Russian students show autonomous motivation of behavior with respect to their health. Women's attitudes to their health in both samples were more positive then men's ones. Such indices of social capital as the level and radius of trust, significance of ethnic and civic identity are mated with positive attitudes towards health in both samples. Autonomous motivation of behavior is correlated with positive attitudes to health in Russian sample.
The paper discusses the evolution of the ideas of Tikhomirov’s semantic theory of thinking as they are re- lated to studies of choice and decision making. We argue that Tikhomirov’s theory is useful and heuristic in addressing key challenges in this scientific field. The theoretical model of the intellectual and personal regulation of choice based on Tikhomirov’s theory is described in the context of a specific study. The study was aimed at investigating the effects of different processes of intellectual and personal regulation at different stages of choice (as a productive decision) and revealing the structuring function of motiva- tion in the regulation of rational choice.
Approbation of Russian language version of the Dirty Dozen questionnaire aimed at measurement of sub- clinical personal traits forming so-called Dark Triad – Machiavellianism, Psychopathy, Narcissism – was the purpose of the work. 362 participants aged 17–62 (M = 24.68, SD = 7.16; 123 male and и 239 female) took part in the research. Diagnostics methods Dark Dozen, Narcissistic traits, Mac-scale, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, Scale of Psychological Reasonableness, T.V. Kornilova’s New Ques- tionnaire “Tolerance for Ambiguity”, McLain’s MSTAT-II, D.V. Lusin’s EmIn Questionnaire, A.V. Kar- pov’s Reflexivity Questionnaire and R. Sternberg’s method “Creative Titles” were used in the research. Three factors structure of the Dirty Dozen Questionnaire was confirmed by means of confirmatory factor analysis; its scales showed satisfactory reliability and convergent validity (with respect to other question- naires). It was shown that levels of psychopathy and machiavellianism are higher in men than women. Psychopathy correlates negatively with emotional intelligence and scales of psychological reasonable- ness but positively – with creativity and tolerance for ambiguity. The results make it possible to state that the Dark Dozen is the first valid Russian language diagnostics instrument for simultaneous measurement levels of personal characteristics of Dark Triad.
The importance to study and evaluate living environments, particularly home environments is discussed. It is noted that home (exactly dwelling) is a crucial environmental and social resource to maintain psychological well-being. The concept of friendliness of the home environment is introduced. Based on the theoretical review as well as using the laddering interview, the actualization constructs technique (G. Kelly’s minimum context method) and the endless sentences method there were identified 55 constructs underlying developed by authors questionnaire ‘Functionality of dwelling environment’. In total, 592 respondents participated in the survey (221 male, 371 female, with average age of 16.3, Me = 18.4, SD = 5.2). The four factor structure of the questionnaire fits empiric data best and consists of 4 scales: Usability, Development, Stability and Security. The primary psychometric characteristics of the tool are described. The prospects of its application are sketched.
The article aims to discuss the findings of investigation of such fundamental psychological issues as ‘what is a human thought’, ‘what is a mechanism of generation’, and ‘what is a structure of human thought’. The neurophysiological mechanisms that ensure the thought generation are addressed to. The definition of thought as a need-emotional-intensional substance is provided. The thought-image and thought-word relationships are exposed. The analysis of thought and image intellectualization is dealt with. The need to introduce the ‘thought’ into the categorial apparatus of psychology is argued.
The study is devoted to the problem of unresolved contradictions of personality in movement towards maturity during different age periods. It has been aimed at identifying different types of unresolved contradictions of mature personality as well as ways of dealing with them. Theoretical and methodological context for studying the above problem are studies of modern integral trends in methodology of personality, the concept of general personology, the periodization of life development of the personality, studies of the life of the personality, the concept of life relations and life contradictions of the personality as well as the concept of development of Self and personal maturity. During the study there have been used such methods as modelling, hermeneutic, biographic, reflexive and pshychodiagnostic. There has been developed the theoretical model of studying unresolved contradictions of personality and the method of reflexive biographical interview. There has been conducted the empirical study which lead to discovery of conscious unresolved contradiction of mature personality mostly pertaining to childhood and current ages. There have also been discovered dominating types of unresolved contradictions such as I-want vs I-reach, Other-in-Self vs Self-in-Other, I-potential vs I-reachable and Value-of-Other vs Value-of-Self. There have been defined leading ways in which the mature personality deals with unresolved contradictions such as hanging the contradiction, not finding adequate resolution to contradiction with the intention to find it, living through defeat in attempts to resolve contradiction. There have been discovered dynamic impact on life, subjective acceptance and opportunity of active reflection of unresolved contradictions of mature personality.
Psychological sovereignty is considered as a state of person’s boundaries in different everyday life
spheres providing a social and personal well-being. The new version of Personal Sovereignty Questionnaire
(PSQ-2010) is developed and described; psychometric properties and results of CFA are shown.
Content validity, divergent validity, and consistency are tested on the sample of N = 1073 respondents.
A system of individual correlates of sovereignty is described. The questionnaire has been standardized,
profi le forms have been developed.
The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) structure was tested for conformity with empirical data collected on university Russian students (N= 298). The CFI is used to assess the type of cognitive flexibility necessary for individuals to successfully challenge and replace maladaptive thoughts with more balanced and adaptive thinking (Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010). Evidence was obtained for the CFI's moderate psychometric properties. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that initial structure of the CFI poor fit to empirical data. The exploratory factor analysis of the CFI's items conducted on the data of Russian sample was used to determine the number of factors and their items. The two-factor solution was reproduced that was somewhat different from the two-factor solution of developers. The differences were made to original CFI by modifying some items in its subscales. Results from factorial validity investigation indicate Russian version of the CFI (CFI-R) has reliable two-factor structure, excellent internal consistency, and moderate 7-weeks test-retest reliability. Preliminary evidence was obtained for gender dependency of cognitive flexibility aspects assessed by the CFI. The findings suggest that the CFI-R is suitable for its application in research settings, and can be used to assess the university students' cognitive flexibility. The perspectives for further research are defined to examine the diagnostic potentials of the CFI in research purposes as well as in psychological treatment.
Development of the questionnaire “People and plants” aimed at assessing individual variety in person’s interaction with the plant world. The method’s relevancy for studies on the restorative function of the natural environment is substantiated. 732 respondents participated in the study (Mage = 19.1, SDage = 2.1, 549 female, 137 male, 46 did not indicate their gender). The questionnaire includes 32 statements measured on a four-point scale, and five sub-scales: Joy, Esthetics, Practice, Closeness to nature, and Ecology. The new tool has satisfactory psychometric characteristics (retest reliability and consistency) and convergent validity, verified by comparison with questionnaires Nature connectedness and Environmental identity. Gender differences are found: all scores except Practice are higher in the female group. The questionnaire can be recommended for research, educational and psycho-developmental programs.
The German Justice Sensitivity Inventory was validated in a Russian sample (N = 1002, Mage = 22.3, SD = 6.3; 769 female). Justice sensitivity is a trait describing the extent to which a person is tolerant or sensitive to cases of injustice in everyday life and, as a result, is ready to act in order to restore justice. The four-factor structure of the Russian version of the inventory was confirmed, in line with the original version. The four scales were as follows: victim sensitivity, observer sensitivity, beneficiary sensitivity, and perpetrator sensitivity. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of scales ranged from 0.89 to 0.91. Gender differences were found: all justice sensitivity scores were higher in females. The age trend was also shown: the older respondents the higher perpetrator sensitivity and lower victim sensitivity and observer sensitivity. Discriminant validity was tested by means of Markers for the Big-Five Factor Structure, Basic World Assumptions, and Belief in a Just World scales. Convergent validity was examined by means of the Moral Motives Model scale. Validity of the Russian version of Justice Sensitivity Inventory was found satisfactory.