The mechanism of the US-Soviet nuclear arms race emerged in the first years of the nuclear. At each step of the American side followed the Soviet response. The power of American strategic aviation was balanced to some extent by the Soviet air defense. A huge role in this period was played by the Soviet intelligence service.
The article presents newly discovered eight letters from the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda (1750–1816) to the Governor of Trinidad in 1804–1811 Thomas Hislop (1764–1843), dated from September 3, 1807, to January 4, 1811. The author made this discovery in October 2015, in the manuscript division of the National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).
The article provides a historical analysis of the stages of building by the US media a negative image of Mexico and Mexicans in the minds of Americans.
The author reviews the collective monograph that contains the results of the studies by the Center for African studies (Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences) on relations between Russia and Africa in the XIX — early XXI century. He analyzes the content and principal ideas of the book’s four main sections and the individual chapters that make up them. The author also tries to evaluate the significance of this book for African studies and concludes that its importance is determined by the wide use of new archival materials and critical unbiased approach to historical data.
The article reconstructs the intellectual history of the Bourbon Restauration (1814—1830) on the basis of Social network analysis (SNA) developed by Randall Collins. SNA reveals the principles and methods of self-organisation used by French thinkers in post-Napoleonic France. Special attention is devoted to the problem of interaction between intellectual and political elite. The author demonstrates how political debates turn into intellectual reflection and the production of theories.
The article is devoted to Soviet Africanists who were connected to the Communist International. The Author analyses the historical situation in which Soviet African studies were born and developed, ideas, works and lives of those who created them, and also the main reasons for the loss not only of the accumulated knowledge about Africa, but even the memory of its existence.
. For the Russian Empire, the Catholic question was one of the most important domestic issues throughout the 19th century; it was the question of building relations with its western regions, primarily with Poland, in which the Catholic clergy was the driving force of the struggle for political independence of the country. In this context, in the second half of the 19th century the Government of the Russian Empire considered maintaining a dialogue with the Holy See as a way to preserve stability in the Western regions of the Empire. Also, for Alexander III, this was a symbolic act illustrating Russia's course on demonstrating continuity with the Christian emperors of the Roman Empire. This should emphasize the special position and role of Russia in Europe. The image of Russia as a Christian empire, its course on the preservation of traditional values was contrasted with the image of the liberalegalitarian Western Europe, which was seized by revolutionary sentiments during this period. A unique historical source on the foreign policy of the Vatican in Eastern Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century and the Holy See-Russian relations is the correspondence of Pope Leo XIII and Russian Emperor Alexander III. From 1881 to 1894, Pope Leo XIII sent about ten official letters and to each of them received an official response from the Emperor. The main materials reporting the history of relations supported by Leo XIII with Alexander III, as well as with Grand Prince Vladimir Alexandrovich Romanov, are kept in the Apostolic Vatican Archive (sections “Spoglio Leone XIII” and “Segr. Stato: parte moderna”), the Affari Ecclesiastici Straordinari fund, the Russian Empire Foreign Policy Archive (funds Vatican and Chancery), Russian State Historical Archive.