The author presents a history of the institute of pol’udie in Old Rus’ from the 10th to the mid 16th century and concludes that this institution had transformed depending on changing economic and financial conditions. Originally, pol’udie was gifts and food which population gave voluntarily to their leaders/rulers when they went round over a territory of a given “tribe”. Beginning at the early 12th century the pol’udie evolved into one tax collected in naturalia or money in favor of a prince or his agents or his beneficiaries. The poliud’e disappeared in the northeastern princedoms of Rus’ since they had been conquered by the Mongols and obliged to pay them a tribute in the mid-13th century.
The article deals with an unknown case of a quarrel between Count Nikolay Sheremetev and his confident and client Aleksey Malinovsky, an official of the Moscow Archive of the Collegium of International Affairs, a historian and later the chief overseer of the Strannopriimny Dom, a hospital and an almshouse built by Sheremetev in 1800s under the supervision of Malinovsky. The article explores how did the patron-client relations between them emerged and what social background did they have. Finally, the article demonstrates how the Malinovsky's family constructed their own patron-client networks.
This article addresses the question of philosophy and political program of contemporary Russian conservatism. The author analyses historical origins of this doctrine and the role of conservative romanticism in a framework of the current political process. From this position the author focuses on comparative analysis of Russian and West European forms of phenomenon under consideration.