Interactions of architecture with social sciences during the Soviet period (from 1920th on) are analyzed including impact of social knowledge upon architecture and planning decisions. The study is based on review of relevant periodicals, collections of texts and monographs on architecture and urban sociology.
The article discusses participation of older Russians (over 60) in charitable activities in Russia, wherein they participate not only as recipients but also as producers of philanthropic activities. Based on the data from the national survey representative of the Russian population conducted in 2014 (N=2000) we provide characteristics of older persons' participation in the most common philanthropic practice in Russia, which is monetary donations. We provide an overview of the scale of donations, most common forms and preferred causes, as well as explore the factors determining donors' activities: social, demographic and economic characteristics, religious identity and behavior, value orientations and beliefs related to interpersonal trust and readiness to join a collective effort and help others.
In 2018, social representations of reproductive attitudes and reproductive behavior of students were studied. By means of vignettes method with the inclusion of five factors-values that determine students' reproductive behavior and life trajectory. The use of the methodology for determining the structure of social representations allowed us to identify four main groups that differ significantly in their views on reproductive behavior, career building. The greatest consensus among undergraduate students (>60%) was stated regarding students who have found a life partner (created a family), begun working, started a career during the studying process. According to 46.5-57.5% of the study participants, the rational development of events is connected to completing education and delaying creating a family and having a baby. Besides, they approve employment after graduation. Acceptable course of events (support 30.4 to 44.4%) - living without any specific strategy during the studying period. Respondents support spontaneous actions depending on circumstances. Undesirable course of events (conflict level consensus-supported by less than a third) mean those students who devalue higher education and who are ready to stop studying for no reason. There was identified a connection between characteristics of the respondent, reproductive attitudes and ideas about them: students, whose reproductive attitudes, related to creating a family and having a baby, are often ready to support their peers who have decided to have a baby. Representatives of Slavic nationalities, especially - girls, believe that creation of a family while being a student should be postponed. Often abortion is not considered as a deviation and may be approved (two-thirds of boys and girls are ready to support it), if childbirth prevents a student from getting further education, marrying, developing romantic relationships.
The problematization of youth citizenship from the perspective of participation in traditional institutionalized politics not only questions the relevance of the dominant theoretical and methodological grounds for studying citizenship in modern conditions, but also calls for a new look at youth as a generation, including their parents. The article is devoted to the analysis of ideas about citizenship in the generational perspective. Based on the concepts of everyday citizenship developed in youth research and a qualitative methodology, the work explores the meanings and interpretations of citizenship as part of personal experience by young adults (18-26 years) and their parents in St.Petersburg. The ideal-typical ideas about citizenship and the reflection on one’s own citizenship are consistently discussed. The analysis of empirical material shows that young people have formed and share a relatively conventional model of citizenship as active involvement in social changes in everyday space. For the parent generation, citizenship is predominantly defined in moral and ethical categories and is manifested through responsible labor activity. At the same time, the more active and socially oriented position of youth leads to a change in intergenerational interaction: not only older generation transmit their values and experience to the younger, but also vice versa.
In the article were considered the social conditions of appearance and formation of sociology in China. It is shown that the beginning of the institutionalization of sociology in China was associated with a pragmatic interest - recognition of the importance of sociology in Europe and Japan and attempts to use this experience on Chinese soil. The emergence of sociological science in China coincides with a period of deep economic and political crisis caused by the defeat in the late XIX century wars. Other factors in the development of sociology in China include the translation activities of Chinese enlighteners and scholars (such as Kang Yuwei, Yan Fu, Zhang Binlin, Liang Qichang), the activities of mission scientists, the training of Chinese students and post-graduate students in sociology at foreign universities. By the beginning of the 1930s, appeared the Chinese sociological society, were published the first journals. The experience of development and achievements of American sociology was significant not only for theoretical sociology, but also for the development of Chinese applied sociology. The article analyzes the process of the formation of Chinese sociology in the period of the Cultural Revolution, coupled with a series of ups and downs, till the complete prohibition of this science in China. Her revival began only in the late 70's because of the consolidation of the efforts of the scientific community, youth, representatives of state power. Modern Chinese sociology is a fully institutionalized science, having its own branches, departments and faculties in Chinese universities, scientific publications (primarily journals), scientific conferences, congresses, etc. Among the priority topics of the study in Chinese sociology are labor issues in small towns, issues of family and marriage relations, social transformation and modernization of society, the problems of life in the countryside and others. In present article for the first time were used the original sources (in Chinese) about the formation and development of sociology in China, were shown new authors whose works are devoted to the study of the formation of Chinese sociology.
The article – based on empirical sociological research – shows that the issue of effective interaction between organized and unorganized activists with local authorities – is, first and foremost, their ability to form own social subjectivity, to respond to the expectations and demands of the community. Identified are components of competent participation that contribute to successful dialogue of community members with the authorities. Role and functions of intermediaries – mediators between social activists and authorities are analyzed. Conclusion is made that authorities’ desire to strictly control scope of civil initiatives leads to alienation, apathy, and spontaneous outbursts of discontent.
Article devoted to problems of development of entrepreneurship in a modern Russian and Armenian society. Proceeding from belief, that groups of interests in modern society is one of authoritative and influential actors of social and political processes, authors analyzes various models and variants of interaction of a society - business - the states in a context of system transformation of the Russian and Armenian societies. As a result of comparison of the practice which have developed in last decade of interaction of the government and business in the Russian Federation and Republic of Armenia authors come to conclusion, that in Armenia unlike Russia as a result of all transformations has developed clannish-corporativistic model of interaction between the state and groups-interests that contradicts interests of a society, but really reflects the developed situation in Armenia.
The rise of private donations, both in Russia and abroad, has become a leading factor in the formation of the nonprofits’ resource base. A considerable number of studies have looked into socio-demographic factors positively associated with charity, such as age, education and income level. This paper explicitly targets the association between parental volunteering and the participation of children in charitable donations as they grow up. The study draws on the results of an All-Russia Representative Survey (N=1,200). The results of the survey provide solid evidence supporting the conclusion about a significant and positive relationship between volunteering and charitable giving in the context of intergenerational transmission. The results of the regression analysis demonstrate stability with the change of the model specification and a set of control variables. This paper confirms prior findings by international scholars about the twofold effect of parental volunteering: parents who volunteer are more likely to have children who also volunteer, and parents who volunteer are more likely to have children who donate. The conclusions of this study reinforce prior research that established the effect of volunteering on charity. The insights generated from the analysis of the relationship between parental volunteering and children’s charitable giving have implications for better understanding of factors that influence charitable giving. The paper has immediate practice relevance for nonprofits. Considering the results of this research, nonprofits can develop long-term fundraising strategies, including programs that allow both parents and children to participate in volunteering.
The article is devoted to consumption of alcohol in contemporary Russia. It is aimed at revealing a range of social practices of alcohol consumption; at testing how those practices are connected to social classes existing in Russia, and moreover, discovering social layers which demonstrate new styles of alcohol drinking. Social practices are classified according to types of alcoholic beverages consumed during the last 30 days, frequency of drinking, places of alcohol consumption, and association between alcohol drinking and mealtime. The research is built on the 21st wave of Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE), an annual nationwide panel survey designed to monitor health and economic welfare of households and individuals in Russia. All calculations were done on a sample of 8,778 alcohol drinkers aged 15 and older. Methods used to analyze data embrace correspondence analysis, factor analysis, and k-means cluster analysis. Six practices of alcohol consumption are ascertained. Research findings demonstrate significant relation of social structure and alcohol consumption. Higher classes mostly represent consumers of light and expensive alcohol. Middle classes tend to consume homemade alcohol. Lower classes stick to vodka, traditional and cheap alcohol. Additionally, individuals who tend to excessive drinking are concentrated in lower-low class.
"Impact of motivation structure on performance of employees in differing professions" (by Aleksei Rebrov) raises the issue of forecasting work behavior basing upon the motivation structure of employees. Authors' intention is to counter some traditional practices of personnel stimulations. Methodology and results of the study follow centering at employees' motivation structure impact on the performance results in three professional groups: manual workers, retail employees, and managers of various levels. Work conditions and characteristics of work place are offered as signal determinants of preferable or undesirable factors influencing motivation outcome.
Article examines the migration of urban working age middle-class citizens to rural areas. Research focuses on de-urbanization processes, mobility (both physical, from the city to rural areas, and socio-cultural), the construction of rural localities by the ex-citizens, and their interaction with local and city communities, as well as the new social realities emergence. The research is concentrated on the nonurban spaces of the Near North, where in-depth interviews were carried out during a cross-disciplinary expedition. Article is focused on moving from urban to non-urban spaces, professional activities of the settlers, and their interaction with social environment We examine the ‘production of locality’ concept, specifics of new hybrid identities, and lifestyles of those moved to rural areas. There are several trends in the process of constructing new localities. On the one hand, the locality produced by city migrants fills rural space with ‘humanistic’ meanings, opens the door to its rational use, making it attractive while forming the resource streams, strongly connected to the city. However, at the same time there is a tendency of producing of quasi-traditional ‘rurality’ and ‘theme parks’ construction, simulacrum-
A study of discursive identities oppositions in terms of the two semantically close words denoting "volunteers", the one being a native Russian word and the other a foreign one, reveals the typical meanings used to justify a social identity choice, when it is done in the absence of significant semantical differences between the two opposed variants. The article exposes what are substantive arguments substituted with in a situation of choice between the two semantically similar objects of self-identification. It reveals that while substantive explanations of an identity choice seem inconvenient, operational arguments are used to indicate that the preferred word denoting identity (1) is associated with a positive emotion, or (2) is clearly understandable, or (3) is frequently being used; so for self-identification I choose the name, which (1) makes me feel a positive emotion, or (2) which I can understand, or (3) I have used to hear or to say. These three options correspond to the three experimentally found components — affective, cognitive and behavioral — of social attitude. The report demonstrates how the results were obtained and how they can be interpreted.