Human choices are not only driven by inner preferences, but also have an impact on behavior. Economists and psychologists have extensively demonstrated that choosing between two attractive options leads to a downgrade of the rejected option and to an upgrade of the chosen one. Preference modulation after the mere act of making a choice has been repeatedly demonstrated over the last 50 years by an experimental paradigm called the ‘free-choice paradigm’. In the past decade the phenomenon of choice-induced preference change generated by cognitive dissonance has been explored by neuroscientists. An increasing amount of research has highlighted the central role of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) in social conformity and cognitive dissonance. This area represents the dissonance between one’s currently inconsistent and ideally consistent states. However, other brain areas have been linked to cognitive dissonance and its resolution, but as yet the mechanisms underpinning cognitive dissonance and the functional connection among brain areas found involved in cognitive dissonance are still unknown. Here, we firstly review the neural mechanisms and brain areas involved in post-decisional preference change and cognitive dissonance. Secondly, we suggest an integration of the existing neurocognitive mechanism of cognitive dissonance. Finally, we suggest new research lines to further explore neural principles of cognitive dissonance and subsequent post-decisional preference change.
Special Theme of the Issue. Neurocognitive Aspects of Language Function and Use
Special Theme of the Issue. Neurocognitive Aspects of Language Function and Use
In a modern constantly changing world the problem of decision-making under trust-distrust is becoming more and more significant. Thus, it is important to study the factors that influence the decision-making process of interaction strategies choice. We tested the influence of situational factors (emotional state and time pressure) on the prisoner’s dilemma model. 208 people (123 females and 85 males, the average age 22 y.o.) participated in our experiment. Our results demonstrate the influence of the following situational factors. Firstly, negative emotions increase the probability of choosing a competing strategy. Secondly, people tend to choose a competing strategy in a time pressure situation. The findings show that a personal trait such as emotional stability increases the probability of the cooperation strategy choice. The diametral picture: severity of such personal characteristics as impulsiveness, antagonism and procrastination increases the probability of choosing a competing strategy (with time pressure and negative emo- tions). Furthermore, with time pressure, Machiavellianism becomes significant for the coopera- tion strategy choice, and liking as a criterion of trust becomes significant for the competing strategy choice.
The paper focuses on the analysis of phenomena involving the individual’s handling of difficult life situations (DLS). Handling DLS is interpreted in the context of “three cultures”: in the interrelation of the culture of scientific knowledge, the “ideofield of culture” and the culture of individual experience. Existing theories of individual response to difficult situations are analyzed; it is shown that the methodological core of most concepts is the “postulate of conformity” (“adaptability”) when interpreting human behavior. Along with the well-known “defensive” and “coping” behaviors that are adaptive in nature, non-adaptive forms are distinguished (“self-destruction” and “mastering”), and a two-dimensional typology of addressing DLS is proposed based on the distinction between “activity/passivity” and “adaptability/non-adaptability”. Self-destruction is characterized as passive non-adaptive behavior (disadaptation); “defense” means passive adaptive behavior (actually, adaptation to the situation); coping is active adaptive behavior (overcoming the situation); and mastering is active non-adaptive behavior (overcoming difficulties). Three ways of mastering are described: post-factum simulation of situations; a testing of the individual’s capabilities in a previously unknown situation (“emotional flutter”); and “emergency simulation for future use”. The ways to reflect upon the person’s own behavior in a DLS are also considered to transform the two-dimensional model into a three-dimensional one to reveal the attitude of an individual to difficult life situations. It is demonstrated that in the subjective plane (the semantic aspect of self-reflection) a picture of the methods used to handle a DLS that is “drawn” by an individual may significantly differ from the objective picture of what is happening (that is established according to the criteria of scientific knowledge). This paper presents a model of the personological synthesis of the three cultures for interpreting and correlating the forms of the person’s handling DLS. In this context, some techniques are described that enable the co-organization of individual experience, elements of the “ideofield of culture” and scientific knowledge to contribute to altering the individual’s attitude to difficult life situations and increasing the meaningfulness of their personal behavior.
The study of refleсtion constitutes a developing domain of foreign psychology. As the results of most studies of refleсtion are published in English the article presents analytical review which focuses mainly on Anglo American research. Etymological propaedeutics and the character of interaction of Russian and foreign refleсtion research are analyzed and their similarity and difference with respect to the object and methods of theoretical and empirical studies are characterized.
The article presents pilot data from a study conducted as part of a large project investigating the impact of socialization on child development supported by a Grant from the Government of the Russian Federation (№14.Z50.31.0027, PI: Grigorenko). The purpose of the study was to investigate indicators of psychological, social and emotional well-being in adults with experience of institutionalization in comparison with peers who grew up in biological families. We used scales from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). Results showed no significant differences between the group of orphanage graduates and the comparison group. However, using classification procedures we established that living conditions (separate apartment vs. a "public" space - a communal apartment or a dormitory) is an important variable predicting group belonging based on well-being indices. Thus, it appears that in adulthood, it is not the history of institutionalization but the actual living environment that is associated with indicators of the psychological, social and emotional well-being of orphanage graduates.
The concept of thought has always been central to understanding the nature of human thinking in psychological studies. However, the main question of what is thought still remains unanswered. The origins of the issue lie in the definition of the original unit of analysis, i.e. in the definition of what lies at the heart of image, belief, imagination, speech, consciousness, and thinking. Based on available studies, results of which were reflected in recent publications, it was argued that thought should be such an original unit of analysis. This article explores the concept of thought based on cognitive constructs and the neurophysiological correlates of mental activity. The present study is addressed to discuss issues dealing with the nature of thought, its content and structure, and the relationships between indicators of substantial thought and the neurobiological correlates of the process of thinking. Structurally thought is based on needs, emotions and intensions, and as such, thought defines the substantive essence of an image and also represents consciousness. Coherence of thoughts and consciousness, their integrity reflect the connectivity of things from the external world in their entirety. Thus, the ability to generate thoughts and build relationships within the stream of consciousness characterizes the human mind. It is shown that thought as a cognitive substance emerges from desires and experiences, as well as from conscious perception. Taken together, the described psychological and neurophysiological assumptions open up new horizons for research into human mental activity, thinking abilities and consciousness.
This study presents the results of empirical research into the relationship between strength and positivity of religious identification and attitudes towards economic behavior in a group of Orthodox Christians and Sunni Muslims in Russia (N = 820). In order to measure strength and positivity of religious identification, we used two components based on the Social Identity Theory. Attitudes toward models of economic behavior were measured through economic attitudes based on a scenario approach. The results revealed that attitudes towards three models of economic behavior can be clustered into a single economic involvement factor. In addition, generalized economic involvement was confirmed by CFA in both religious groups. In our study we found that strength and positivity of religious identification are differently associated with attitudes toward economic involvement in the two groups. Thus, it was concluded that the strength of religious identification negatively related to attitudes reflecting economic involvement. Positivity of religious identification was found to have a positive association with economic involvement. However, the further MGSEM demonstrated that the relationship between positivity of religious identification and economic involvement had interfaith specifics: positivity of religious identification was positively related to the models of economic involvement only in the group of Christians, while in the group of Muslims this relationship was insignificant. The results are discussed in terms of features of religious identification in these two groups
Authors develop a new approach to study one’s relationships with others, which focuses on the conditions and the effects of dialogical nature of a person. Theoretical modeling, hermeneutics, qualitative and quantitative methods are applied. The solution for detecting the conditions of self-development and social positioning of a person, which are rooted in dialogical I-Other relationships are suggested. The originality of the paper is associated with describing the relation to the other as the reflexive I-Other relationship; with elaborated model that highlights how different dimensions of I-Other relationships (between I and Other, I-in-Other, Other-in-Me, I-in-Myself) leads to truly dialogical mode of being; with revealing the potentials of Conversation Partner in dialogical I-Other relationships (subjective interrelations and significance of Conversation Partners, their activity, fullness of reflection of significant Conversation Partners); with description of different hypostases of Conversation Partners (Real, Ideal, Secret, I as Myself) by the means of hermeneutics. “My Conversation Partner” method is also should be mentioned, as well as empirical study of existential and social resources of Conversation Partners. Theoretical background of the study is formed by the works of M.M. Bakhtin, M. Buber, M. Heidegger, J-P Sartre. E. Levinas, as well as by the works of modern psychologists such as G.M. Kuchinsky, A.V. Rossohin, E.B. Starovoytenko, Brown C.T.& Keller P.W., Hermans H.J.M., Rivetti Ваrbo F., etc. As the results of a current research have shown, the potentials of social adaptivity, affiliation, dominating, positive solitude, joy of solitude, freedom, self-transcendence, existential fulfillment are associated with the richness of one's Conversation Partners.
This research tests the hypothesis that 3- and 4-year-olds can use characteristics of a social context created by adults to learn new words. One of the strategies that a child can use in multi-party conversations is to decide to whom a message (and a new word) is addressed. The ability to do so may simplify word learning situations by making the learning selective and by reducing the amount of perceived words. In the current experiment we test children's ability to learn a new word from a natural conversation when the communicative context is kept constant and when it is altered by adding a new game partner. We predicted that children will differentially interpret verbal messages containing a new word as addressed to them or to the new person, and this will affect their ability to remember the new word. Children heard a new word in one of two conditions: when a communicative context shared with an adult was kept constant and when it has changed (a new adult joined the conversation). We found that 3-year-olds could learn new words only when the communicative context was constant, but 4-year-olds could learn new words in both conditions. A control condition revealed that these findings cannot be explained by task difficulty.
According to embodied cognition theory, speech is largely based on the body motor and sensory experience. The question that is crucial for our understanding of the origin of language is how our brain transforms sensory-motor experience into word meaning. We have developed an auditory-motor experimental procedure that allowed investigating neural underpinning of word meaning acquisition by way of associative "trial-and-error" learning that mimics important aspects of natural word learning. Participants were presented with eight pseudowords; four of them were assigned to specific body part movements during the course of learning – through commencing actions by one of a participant’s left or right extremities and receiving a feedback. The other pseudowords did not require actions and thus were used as controls. A magnetoencephalogram was recorded during passive listening to the pseudowords before and after the learning. The cortical sources of the magnetic evoked responses were reconstructed using distributed source modeling. The learning of novel word meanings through word-action associations selectively increased neural specificity for these words in the auditory parabelt areas responsible for spectrotemporal analysis, as well as in articulatory areas, both located in the left hemisphere. The extent of neural changes was linked to the degree of language learning, specifically implicating the physiological contribution of the left perisylvian cortex in the speech learning success.
The analysis of theoretical work on the psychology of activity by leading Russian psychologists has shown that the principle of the activity approach is deeply and comprehensively developed in Russian psychology and has reasonably acquired the status of a paradigm. Conceptual models of the activity approach can be successfully applied while setting exploratory programs and developing specific research designs. It can be reasonably argued that the activity approach has not only had a rich past, but it also has a successful present and future. This study reports on the general structure of the activity psychological functional system (APFS) that is close to the general structure of the physiological functional system suggested by P. K. Anokhin. However, the APFS in its components and the relationships between them is filled with a new content that is primarily determined by the human mind. The issue of the ability’s place in an activity structure is addressed in this paper. Understanding activity from the standpoint of system genesis reveals the essence of human development processes and provides for understanding of the relationship between activity and development; it shows the place of abilities in the implementation of activities and enables the understanding of the development mechanism in abilities and activities. It is shown that abilities are mechanisms of activity realization, and that activity may be considered from the position of a system of abilities employed to accomplish it that undergoes permanent changes in regard to the composition and the extent of the constituents’ interaction.
This paper addresses the problem of attitudes toward traits, a bipolar evaluative construct. It is argued that attitude toward traits is a supplementary characteristic for conventional personality traits. In this regard, a second dimension of personality traits emerges where each trait can be characterized on another level, a level of attitudes. The study also demonstrates the psychometric utility of a Russian version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991; John, Naumann & Soto, 2008). The secondary factor structure of the Big Five corresponding to the hypothesis on stability/plasticity (DeYoung, Peterson, & Higgins, 2002) was obtained. The BFI was also shown to be employed as a tool to measure attitudes toward traits, and the five-factor structure was replicated as applied to attitudes toward traits. Different traits demonstrated different sizes of relationships with attitudes toward respective traits.
Previous research has documented the limited capacity of visual working memory (VWM) for color objects set at 3–5 items. Another line of research has shown that multiple objects can be stored in a compressed form of ensemble. However, existing data is more likely to testify that VWM can store no more than two such compressed units. But the nature of this discrepancy can be methodological: VWM for ensembles was never tested using methods that are applied in the research of VWM for objects. Here we have tested the capacity and precision of VWM for objects and ensembles using two standard methods — change detection and continuous report with a mixture model. We found that VWM for both types of units showed the similar capacity and precision when critical psychophysical parameters, such as foveal density and area are controlled. We also showed that this quantitative similarity between objects and ensembles is provided by a mechanism that represents each ensemble as a holistic VWM chunk as efficiently as it represents any single object.
В статье обсуждается ресурсный подход к совладающему поведению. Подчеркивается, что наряду личностными, инструментальными, социальными и другими ресурсами совладающего поведения элементы домашней среды – функциональность и релевантность домашней среды, а также привязанность к дому, могут быть рассмотрены в качестве важнейших ресурсов совладающего поведения в юношеском возрасте. Данные элементы лежат в основе формирования образа дома.
В исследовании приняло участие 344 респондента: 267 девушек и 77 юношей, студенты различных факультетов НИУ «Высшая школа экономики». Были использованы следующие опросники: опросники «Функциональность домашней среды», «Релевантность домашней среды», «Привязанность к дому» и «Опросник способов совладания» Р. Лазаруса и С. Фолкман в адаптации Т.Л. Крюковой и Е.В. Куфтяк.
Результаты факторного анализа позволили выделить позитивный образ дома, основываясь на параметрах функциональности и релевантности домашней среды, а также привязанности к ней. Эти параметры являются важным ресурсом совладающего поведения в юношеском возрасте. Результаты корреляционного анализа показали, что позитивный образ дома связан с выбором эффективных стратегий самоконтроля, поиска социальной поддержки, планирования решения проблем и позитивной переоценки, а также с неэффективной стратегий конфронтационного копинга.
Результаты исследования могут быть использованы в психологическом консультировании для создания индивидуальных профилей предпочтений домашней среды. Они могут помочь в моделировании или изменении домашнего пространства в соответствии с потребностями и ожиданиями личности, позволяя, таким образом, использовать домашнюю среду как важнейший ресурс совладающего поведения и психологического благополучия личности.
This paper describes the impact of religious identity and perceived parent-child psychological closeness on their value similarity in different religious contexts (contexts of religious minority and majority). The total sample includes 454 respondents. Parents and adolescent children of 118 Russian Orthodox Christian families from the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (with 72% Muslim population) and 109 Russian Orthodox families from the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (with 91% Orthodox population) were surveyed using a questionnaire measuring values (Portrait Values Questionnaire-Revised – PVQ-R of Schwartz), religious identity and scales of perceived parent-child closeness assessed by parents and adolescents developed by the authors. The results of path analysis showed that religious identity of Russian Orthodox adolescents in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic predicted parent-child value similarity, while the perceived psychological closeness of adolescents with their parents negatively related to their value similarity. In the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania parental religious identity and psychological closeness assessed by children predict the parent-child value similarity. In these two North Caucasus republics we also found that psychological closeness assessed by parents negatively related to parent-child value similarity. The discussion of the results is devoted to the role of religious context in the impact of religious identity and perceived psychological closeness on parent-child value similarity.
Traditionally, the psychological status of the therapist is defined as a personality. However, the therapeutic relationship is very specific (unconventional) and therefore cannot be regarded merely as a form of interpersonal relationship. This contradiction poses the problem of the therapist’s psychological status. The authors reveal the following polar dimensions of subjectivity: individuality (personality) and individity (essence). Personality/individuality are objects of traditional humanity. Individity is a specific, integrated embodiment of the human essence. It serves as an instance, responsible for the process of individuation, and is the result of individuation. The main features of individity are: numinous, transpersonal experiences; sensitivity and openness to experience; authenticity and congruence; and ability to love. The most important condition of the psychotherapeutic process is the psychological status of the psychotherapist. This status is the result of actualization. It is not the therapist’s individuality, but his/her individity that is in communication with a client. The therapist’s individity is characterized not only by unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding of the client and congruent self-expression, but also by an altered (unconditional) state of the therapist’s consciousness where his/her intuitive, positive and essential characteristics are present in the therapeutic situation.
The present study analyses the mediating role of transactional and transformational leadership in the relationship between collective organizational efficacy and collective work engagement. The data were collected from 86 employees working in nine Italian companies of Food & Beverage sector. The questionnaire included three scales: a) collective organizational efficacy (Bohn, 2010); b) collective work engagement (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003); c) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Bass & Avolio, 1995). Results showed positive relationship between one component of transactional leadership – contingent reward – and collective work engagement. Also the positive relationship was found between collective work engagement and three components of transformational leadership – intellectual stimulation, idealized influence (behavior) and idealized influence (attributed). The mediation effects of contingent reward and transformational leadership on the relationship between collective organizational efficacy and collective work engagement were confirmed. The practical implications of the results of the present study and directions of future research are discussed.
Recent studies have demonstrated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) and the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) are causally involved in social norm compliance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a third party's decision to punish norm violations depends on the activity of the entire rDLPFC/rTPJ network. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to independently or jointly modulate rTPJ and rDLPFC activity during the third-party dictator game. We found a significant effect of anodal tDCS of the rTPJ, which decreased the third-party punishment of moderately unfair splits. Joint stimulation of the rTPJ (by anodal tDCS) and rDLPFC (by cathodal tDCS) produced a marginal effect on third-party punishment.
Comparative analysis of psychological research on the role of the third party in conflicts in Russian and foreign traditions is presented in this article. The author's classification of the third party’s intervention strategies in a conflict based on two criteria is discussed. The first criterion is a degree of the third party’s activity in a conflict. The second criterion is the aspect which thirdparty emphasizes in the process of solving a conflict — the relations between disputants and their emotions, or the result of a conflict. Hence, a classification of the third party’s intervention strategies in solving interpersonal conflicts can be presented. For example, when a third party’s activity is high and the third party emphasizes the relations between disputants and their emotions in the process of solving a conflict, the third party’s intervention strategies are facilitative, evaluative, transformative, as well as mediation strategies. When the third party’s activity is high and the third party emphasizes the outcome of a conflict, the third party’s intervention strategies are pressing, directive, arbitration, problem-solving, and deal-making. Then, when the third party’s activity is low and the third party emphasizes the relations between disputants and their emotions in the process of solving conflicts, the third party’s intervention strategies are differentiated, narrative, storytelling, and understanding-based. Finally, when third party’s activity is low and the third party emphasizes the result of a conflict, the third party’s intervention strategies are analytic, neutral, strategic, pragmatic, as well as orchestration strategies. Different strategies of third-party intervention in a conflict and their efficiency are analyzed.