In the article, a new interpretation of Euripides’ Iphigenia in Tauris is proposed. The main motif of the tragedy, the motif of barbarian human sacrifces, is constantly associated with intrafamilial murders in the house of Agamemnon, and the sacrifce of Orestes by Iphigenia, anticipated in the tragedy, is to join together the barbarian ritual and the tribulations of the Argos royal dynasty. The problem of human sacrifces in a barbarian land was in itself hardly of interest to Euripides; their constant comparison and drawing together with the events in Agamemnon’s family enables us to assume that this motif served for symbolic expression of internal discords in the Hellenic world itself, that is, of the civil war in Argos solved with the help of Athens. It is possible to suppose that the tragedy celebrated an alliance between Athens and Argos, concluded after the war in spring 416 B.C.
The paper examines the note by Photius on the “Metamorphoses” by Lucius Patrensis (Bibliotheca, cod. 129). The information given by Photius is extremely important for the history of the ancient novel, but in crucial passages of the text Photius’ phrasing seems inarticulate. The paper is an attempt to
The article contains an annotated translation of a fragment of the Buddhist text Saṅghabhedavastu, which recounts a legend about the appearence of the first people, the formation of social structures and the institutionalisation of royal power. The translation is preceded by an introduction that places the text into the context of other ancient documents that contain this legend and analyzes the figure of the first king and its fate in those countries where Buddhism would spread. The introduction also includes some brief information about Saṅghabhedavastu as a whole.
The present paper inquires into classification of the lexical items which belong to the semantic field “Song” in the early Pindar’s lyric. It is based on the principle of the New explanatory thesaurus of Russian language. The present paper inquires into classification of the lexical items belonging to the semantic field “Song” of the early Pindar’s lyric. Our analysis is based on the principle of the New explanatory thesaurus of Russian language. It is possible to draw the following conclusions on the prorieties of this field: 1) it has the developed paradigmatic relations: derivation, synonymy, meronymy, conversion, antonyms; 2) this field has no clearly pronounced dominant, this role equally claim token ἀοιδά and ὕμνος, although the first has a more neutral area of use and a wider range of derivation. However, with such scanty material it is premature to make more definitive conclusions; 3) the vocabulary of sound prevail over a dance- vocabulary; 4) there is a tendency to metonymic transitions from sound to word, filled with semantic content; 5) this field includes vocabulary of different styles; 6) general and abstract concepts are expressed through myth or a metaphor.
The article analyzes the books devoted to the literature of everyday life
The article presents theoretical and empirical results of the first year of the research project “Media & Technologies in Contemporary City”. These results include the development of an interdisciplinary methodology that combines approaches of new media studies and urban studies (anthropology of digital city); as well as the results of field surveys of urban mobility and Moscow museums’ digitalization.
The paper presents a Russian translation and a brief analysis of Remembrance of Ja 'far Sadiq from the Persian Sufi anthology Memorial of God's Friends by Farid al-din Attar. Ja'far Sadiq, the sixth Shi'i imam, founder and eponym of the Ja'fari school of jurisprudence, played an important role in the Sufi tradition. The Sufis revered him as a member of Prophet Muhammad's family (ahl-i bayt) and, through his persona, connected their own tradition of piety with the age of the Prophet and his companions. Sufis also considered him a bearer of hidden knowledge ('ilm al-batin), an inimitable interpreter (mufassir) of the Quran and claimed to be his spiritual descendants by including him in Sufi lineages. These virtues became the main features of Ja'far Sadiq's hagiographic portrait in the Persian Sufi tradition.
One of the most important issues in modern historical linguistics is that of verifcation of hypotheses of deep level relationship between various linguistic families. Most noncontroversial theories of genetic relationship do not deal with time depths that surpass 5 or 6 thousand years ago, and the classic comparative method is often found insuffcient to reliably justify suggestions of macrofamily level relationship (such as “Nostratic”). It is therefore necessary to supplement the comparative method with additional techniques, particularly based on progress in the area of phylogenetic modeling, as well as with empirical typological evidence on language change that has been accumulated over several decades of intense research. In this short paper, we briefy describe the main goals and perspectives of the project upon which a team of our researchers is currently working at the Laboratory of Oriental Studies and comparative linguistics: (a) integration of signifcant data on the typology of phonetic and semantic change into the procedure of verifcation of language relationship; (b) improvement of the currently employed algorithms for statistical analysis of the basic lexicon; (c) inclusion of the results of our research in the computer software STARLING, originally designed by Sergei Starostin as a basic tool for historical linguistics purposes, and their approbation on linguistic databases for major linguistic families of Eurasia, Africa, and America that are currently being compiled for the related Web project “The Global Lexicostatistical Database”.
The paper presents the frst Russian translation of the entire text of volume 398 of the Extensive Records of the Taiping Era, a collection of supernatural and other marvelous stories, including thousands of stories covering the chronological span from Han times to the middle of the 10th century. The volume is entitled “Stones” and contains thirty-seven entries concerning various unusual stones and two entries about a walking hill-slope and singing sands. The main contributors to the text of the volume were Dai Fu (VIIIth century), author of the “Wide World of Marvels” (Guang yi ji), and Xu Xuan (Xth century), author of the “Accounts of Inspecting Spirits” (Ji shen lu).
Previous studies of category illusion showed the influence of both encoding and retrieval phase on the formation of the illusion. In the current study, we tried to describe and compare the level of category illusion under various retrieval conditions. We found no statistically significant differences in the number of correct answers between a condition with one and several exemplars of a critical lure at the retrieval phase. However, the condition with two exemplars of the critical lure was found to decrease confidence in the correct response, which may indicate a more complex task.
Transmedia storytelling (TS) refers to media experiences expanded across multiple platforms. This article discusses the specificity of Russian TS initiatives. The goal of the research is to determine the social and cultural contexts in which TS is adopted in Russia by reconstructing the panorama of the Russian transmedia landscape. The qualitative research is methodologically supported by an analysis of documents and materials regarding transmedia projects in Russia and presents an interdisciplinary theoretical approach (1) to explore the concept of TS and the variability of terminology in different contexts; (2) to situate the discussion of TS in the contemporary Russian media space and above all (3) to analyze examples of transmedia projects in Russia. Since TS is just emerging in Russian media and media studies, the article represents an attempt to map the Russian transmedia landscape.
The article considers personal experience and perception by Russian historians, such as M.M. Kovalevsky, A.N. Savin, N.I. Kareev causes, events and atmosphere of the First World War. The change in the attitude of the academic community to Germany and the Germans is analyzed, and the question of the activities of such organizations as the "Anglo-Russian Friendship Society" and assistance to Russian citizens who’d been caught in captivity was discussed.
The textualization of knowledge has produced numerous texts in Persian. These scholarly treatises (on astronomy and algebra, pharmacology and plant science, Sufi teachings and the art of poetry, etc.) are undoubtedly among the most revealing testimonies regarding the medieval culture of Iran. The problem of their inclusion in the domain of literature is under discussion in the first part of the article. From the point of view of their main function those works mostly fall into the category of informational and directive texts and thus (when viewed from the modern Western perspective) can be only considered as non-literature. In authoritative “histories of Persian literature” some treatises are discussed in the “Prose of the period” sections, with a focus on the content of the given book and its status, and without any special mention of its generic features. However, the tradition of composing treatises eventually developed a set of characteristics and conventions of textualization which could be considered as literary (elaborate and in some cases embellished language; narrative interpolations, stories, anecdotes, poems; rhetorical techniques of discourse; compositional structure in relation to a certain topic). When seen in the pre-modern Iranian perspective, the “expository” treatises, regardless of their literary merits. are a part of classical Adabīyāt and form the very basis of refined education (adab). The topics exposed in treatises provided “educated” Persian poetry with clusters of “technical” imagery, and the patterns of scholarly reasoning found their counterpart in the poetic argumentation. In the second part of the article the hermeneutical use of the treatises is discussed. Popular calligraphic imagery serves as a good example here, as many poetic circumlocutions find their explanation in treatises on calligraphy. The expository texts are by no means detached from the high literature; moreover, they prove important for a better understanding of “presentational” genres of poetry and prose. An appendix to the article includes a translation of a small textbook on calligraphy by Halil Tabrizi (16th century).
This article discusses the phenomenon of Russian digital projects to preserve personal memories, which include “Oral History”, “European Memory about the GULAG”, the Obninsk digital project, PastVu, Relikva, etc. The goal of the research is to answer the question whether these projects are able to form public alternatives to official constructions of the past and ways in which that past is to be studied. The qualitative research is theoretically and methodologically based on notions of memory theory, public and digital history as well as media memory and digital network memory. Problems of participatory culture in digital historical projects are also studied. The authors put forward an analytical model based on uncovering the aims and themes of digital projects, the particulars of their funding, the role of professional historians and the participatory practices of the audience.
This research was focused on postdictive properties of apparent motion — an illusion of movement resulting from successive presentation of two dots. Obviously, the mechanisms of integration of two dots’ representations can take place only after the second dot is presented. There are two alternatives of what exactly happens. Firstly, a person becomes aware of the first dot, then the second dot, and then reconstructs his or her memories of what he or she just saw. Secondly, the person becomes aware of the first dot, and unconscious integration occurs before he/she becomes aware of the second dot, so that the person becomes aware of the sum “sense of motion + second dot”. Our research revealed evidence in favor of the latter— unconscious integration. During the experiment, participants observed stimuli corresponding to different levels of illusory strength or lack of illusion. Significant differences in amplitudes of ERP components P100 and N200 can be related to qualitative differences in awareness of the second dot, depending on the strength of illusion. This means that these differences are determined by unconscious integration that happened prior to awareness. Significant differences of alpha-band power up to 300 ms after the second dot’s onset demonstrate that unconscious integration can be performed at the expense of suppression of the alpha-band. Thus, the contents of perception which a person apprehends can be described as unconscious integration of stimuli, captured in a small time interval prior to the moment of awareness. Going forward, we can seek to determine more
The research project on hagiographic narrative in Persian literature and culture is now in progress in the Laboratory of Oriental Studies and comparative linguistics SASH. Currently the research is centered in the study of the first full-scale collection of the sacred biographies, Memorial of God's Friends by Farid ad-Din ʻAttar, and in the commented translation of the book into Russian. The article provides an outline of the main aspects of study (narrative patterns at the formative period of the Persian hagiographic life writing; the sainthood narrative and its impact beyond the genre) and serves as an introduction to the sample translations from ʻAttar’s compendium published in this journal.