The paper presents to theoretical and experimental investigation of the plasma source on the basis of the electrodeless microwave discharge in a mode of electron cyclotron resonance. Steady interest in the sources of plasma of this type is defined as insufficiently complete study of physical phenomena accompanying the microwave discharge, and the perspective of its application in ion accelerators, and also for creation of a nonequilibrium plasma in plasma chemical reactors. Source plasma excited by microwave discharge in a cylindrical resonator with dielectric walls, placed in a non-uniform axial-symmetrical magnetic field of a permanent ring magnet. To create electromagnetic oscillations such E01 in cylindrical resonators used broadband enter the microwave energy, which is a conical transformer attached to the dielectric window in the end. Frequency range, the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves and spatial change of magnitude of a magnetic field induction had been chosen the way that the conditions of electron cyclotron resonance can be created in a quite large volume of cylindrical resonator. Modeling matching transformer made using MICROWAVE STUDIO software v 5.0.0. Experimental study of microwave discharge carried out in the range of 3.2 - 3.9 GHz. The investigated area of the glow discharge, as well as the dependences of the standing wave ratio (VSWR) frequency and power generator are in good qualitative agreement with the results of mathematical modeling of electromagnetic fields in the resonator region of the plasma generator. The study has found that the complex structure of the discharge at low gas pressure is determined by the configuration of a strongly inhomogeneous magnetic field. Thus the ignition and burning of the discharge can occur only due to the oscillating electrons, which do not leave the discharge and can ionize the neutral gas molecules.
A subject of the study are systems of synchronization and motion parameters estimation for global positioning satellite systems (GLONASS, GPS, Galileo and others) receivers. Two synchronization systems are considered in the paper: a traditionally used system with separate synchronization in each navigation channel and an alternative one – with joint synchronization of all the signals. The latter system is called CQLL (coordinate-quartz locked loop). There are four common loops in the CQLL (three coordinate loops and one quartz loop) and N individual loops in accordance with the number of synchronized satellite signals. The common loops are designed for tracking general highly dynamic impacts (such as receiver motion and quartz fluctuation, especially due to shaking), while individual loops – for synchronizing less intensive individual effects (ionosphere, troposphere and some other effects). The aim of this study is to develop recommendations on selecting one of the systems and system parameters depending on environment conditions. A modification of the existing joint synchronization system has been proposed in the paper which leads to full unloading of individual loops from the general effects enabling bandwidths of the individual loops to be very narrow (units of Hz). Experiments based on simulation modeling have been performed, which demonstrated the benefit of the proposed modified system (CQLL system with full unloading of individual loops). It has been shown that within pre-threshold regions both separate and modified joint synchronization systems provide the same dynamic and fluctuation errors for position and velocity estimates if the bandwidth of common loops matches that of the separate synchronization system. However, the joint synchronization system typically has smaller fluctuation errors for tracking phases of each navigation signals which eventually should improve threshold properties of such systems (when narrow bandwidths of individual loops are employed).
In this study with using of the small-signal theory of discrete electron-wave interaction in the passbands and stopbands resonator slow-wave systems (SWS) of power traveling-wave tubes (TWT), obtain the characteristic equation for the propagation constants of the 4-electron waves produced in the interaction of the electron beam forward and backward electromagnetic waves of SWS. The analysis of solutions of this equation, which allowed to establish the specific characteristics of these waves are compared with the known properties of electron waves in a "smooth", such as helical SWS. On the basis of solving the boundary value problem for the SWS segments were simulated and found gain of multisection TWT with transparent section and stopsection, as well as, the distribution of fields and currents along the stopsection.
The question of ensuring reliability, especially of durability of mobile communication systems on the stage of planning, is considered in this paper. The purpose of this work is rising quality of projection radio engineering devices (their components) of mobile communication systems. Research of real methods for calculating the indicators of longevity radio engineering devices was conducted for aim achievement. They have some disadvantages, because according to industry standards 4.012.013-84 they use constant value of variation coefficient in mathematical expression. Unified method in the form of IDEF0-diagram was proposed for elimination of defects. It allows to remove quantification of the durability of the constituent parts of the mobile communication systems of «resource» type. Method consists of five successive steps: the formation of source data, updated calculation of variation coefficient, calculation of storage time, evaluation of complex load factor and calculating of indicators of «resource» type. Notably attention is paid to calculating of updated variation coefficient, which makes a significant contribution to the result. It was detected that it is necessary to apply complex load factor in mathematical expressions in the evaluation of resource of radio engineering devices of mobile communicational systems, because it considers both electrical load and temperature, which is explained by the thermally dependent electrical parameters of electrical components. A summary table of the mean group value of the coefficient of variation for certain subgroups of electrical components was compiled. This table is accessory to counting indicators of durability of «resource» type if the necessary electronics are not available in handbooks about reliability. The calculation of the quantitative values of the durability of the video transmitter with the construction of visual dependencies of gamma-percent resource on the complex load factor was completed. Dependences that have been obtained mirror underestimation of gamma-percent resource with the method which is given in industry standards 4.012.013-84 compared with the proposed. It is recommended to integrate the results of research into methodology of calculating of reliability indicators of «resource» type of components at enterprises and research institutes engaged in the development of mobile communication systems.
Theoretical and experimental research results in the field of highperformance microwave technologies of sheet materials' with small dielectric losses thermal treatment are presented. To increase the electric field decay constant amplitude in the material with small dielectric losses sections of twodimensional periodic slowwave systems are used as heating elements. The microwave construction is based on a module, which consists of two identical in design and parameters microwave heating sections, positioned one above the other, and the electromagnetic field energy propagates along these sections in opposite directions. Processed material is positioned between two sections. Each heating section consists of the twodimensional periodic slowwave system, which on the one hand conditions with the microwave energy source, and on the other hand conditions with the water load, in which there is a sensor of passing power for the control of technological process. The long line with given boundary conditions was used as a model of microwave devices with the processed material. Special design of filters that impede microwave radiation from a working setup were used to reduce the level of a side radiation at the input and output of the processed material. Divergence of theoretical and experimental temperature distribution characteristics in the sheet material (ebonite) with small dielectric losses does not exceed 4%, and the temperature deviation in the material from the nominal temperature value does not exceed 7%. To materials with low dielectric losses in particular, relate: polystyrene, polypropylene and polyethylene with different fillings, for example, in the form of 10% carbon black or other dyes, plexiglass, ebonite and other plastics. Heat treatment of such materials by gas or by other known methods does not lead to the whole volume uniformity of heating due to the low plastics' heat conductivity and in subsequent operations, such as pressing or stamping, cracking or other unwanted defects arise.
Theoretical and experimental research results in the field of highly effective rod material's with low thermal conductivity microwave heat treatment technologies are presented. Rods made of polymeric composite materials are used as reinforcement in construction industry. Proposed microwave throughout the volume uniform heating method of the dielectric rod removes the internal thermal stresses in the process of polymerization reactions. Volumetric heating of the dielectric rods leads to fullness of polymerization and high quality of products. A loaded long line with given boundary conditions was used as a model of microwave device with the processed material. Microwave device, consisting of two different in design electrodynamic system sections with complementary temperature distribution over the cross section of a rod, was proposed for a highly efficient dielectric rods' with different diameters heat treatment. The first electrodynamic system (round waveguide) provides the maximum temperature along the axis of the dielectric rod and its decline along the radius to the outer surface of the rod. The second electrodynamic system (diaphragmatic waveguide slowwave structure) provides the maximum temperature on the outer surface of the rod, and its decline along the radius to the axis of the dielectric rod. The resulting temperature distribution over the cross section of a rod from the two sections of the microwave device should provide the temperature distribution over the cross section of a rod, which satisfies the technological process requirements. Experimental studies were carried out on the electromagnetic field frequency oscillations of 2450 MHz with a rod of 40 mm in diameter. Divergence of the theoretical and experimental crosssection temperature values of the rod does not exceed 6%, and the temperature deviation in the material rod does not exceed 8% from the nominal temperature value. Polymer composite materials' thermal conductivity is very small and their heat treatment with gas or other known methods does not lead to the entire volume uniformity of heating, which leads to various flaws in the finished products during production.
The possibilities of use as the output stage television transmitter traveling wave tube to amplify simultaneously several television channels. TWT has a wide bandwidth and a high gain. The simulation of the transformation of multi-frequency signals, including a lest of the television signal. The method of analysis — a quasistationary. Lamp determined by its amplitude and fazo-amplitude external characteristics. The case of sufficiently smooth characteristics that can be approximated by a polynomial of low degree. For a given bandwidth requirements for high-frequency signal and intermodulafion interference investigated for optimal arrangement of three to six TV channels in a given band TWT. We also consider the effect of the phase of each channel at the level of the Raman background. It is shown that the use of the phase shifter on the even (or odd) channels to reduce intermodulation background caused by combination up to 5 dB at the same total power. The calculations of the nonlinear interaction of the six channels, received frequency and levels of combinational components with different capacities and placement of frequency channels. We give conditions for selection of the total input power TWT in which intermodulation interference is less than the level specified by the standard.
In the linear approximation is carried out numerical simulation and analysis of the features of the interaction of colliding electron beams in a drift tube with the reduction ratio of plasma oscillations and electronic interaction between threads. In the hydrodynamic approach in the weak signal wave technique developed theories related to space-charge waves colliding electron beams. Write an equation relating the plasma waves and electron beams obtained dispersion equation continuous four-two-beam interaction, which is valid over a wide bandwidth for different values of the parameters of decreasing Coulomb forces with distance, and the coefficients of the electronic interaction between threads. In the single-mode approximation in each of the interacting flows spread fast and slow space-charge wave (electronic or plasma wave beams). It was obtained solution of the dispersion equation in three modes and fourwave communications space-charge waves. The features of the modes of interaction such as BWO-amplifier, directional coupler with a periodic or aperiodic wave coupling in the case of interaction of colliding wide and narrow electron beams in the drift tube.
The paper dwells on the issues with the task durability indices, limit state criteria of electronic component base for recoverable and non-recoverable technical means in accordance with existing standards of reliability. The paper shows the analysis of principles of resource allocation. Also the report offers the prediction technique of electronic component base durability, which permits to form base requirements and to carry out calculation of gamma-percentile life of separate radio-electronic devices depending on maintenance conditions. Application of offered method allows to increase the reliability of calculated indices of durability due to the specification of basic data and taking into account individual features of using and exploitation both electronic means in whole and component parts, right up to the radio-electronic devices taken separately.
The task is to sharply reduce the complexity of analysis, multivariate analysis and parametric optimization of linear and linearized equivalent electrical circuits. The source of such schemes are not only linear electronic circuits, but also circuits formed on the basis of artificial electrical analogies. They can be formed on the basis of finite element methods and finite difference methods used in solving partial differential equations. The reduction in the complexity of computations is carried out by formal methods of transforming the model into a macromodel, which reflects only the input - output type relations of the original model. The e ssence of the work lies in the formal transformation of the model of a linear or linearized equivalent electrical circuit, formed using artificial electrical analogies methods, into a macromodel, according to which the same output characteristics can be calculated with the same accuracy but with increased speed by several orders of magnitude. Algorithms for such transformations are given. Using a macromodel, one can calculate static characteristics, frequency characteristics, zeros and poles of system functions, dynamic characteristics, eigenvalues, and vectors of a macromodel matrix, which make it possible to determine the stability and stability margin of the original circuit using the first А.М. Lyapunov method, its resonant eigenfrequencies and the duration of the transition process, as well as partial derivatives of the above characteristics for a small number of variable circuit parameters to replace the optimization of the circuit with the methods of the 1st order with its optimization by the macro model. In addition, macromodels can be used to create a new element, constructional, and technological base for design. Macromodel can serve as an element of a model of a higher hierarchical level. Block hierarchical process of macromodelling is possible.