The article is devoted to the reconstruction of school system in 1936, when the evidence of the world war became clear. The author investigates the processes inside the teachers community and in school training, caused by the renunciation of former policy of pupils differentiation according their intellectual abilities. On the basis of archive documents of Moscow schools the article restores the superior control mechanisms of school stuffs and the methods of school pedagogy, descended from the formulation of the new strategic aims,
The article views influence of social and pedagogical conditions on the development of cognitive independence of younger school students in educational and research activity. The model of development of cognitive independence of younger school students is approved. It is proved by practical consideration that the program of educational and research activity, the method of design (enrichment) of the educational environment, teachers and parents’ support of the cognitive initiative in primary school make important social and pedagogical conditions for the cognitive independence development of younger school students.