Switching from the source language to the target language is an essential and crucial element of the translation process which determines to a large extent the effectiveness of cross-cultural communication in translation. It is proposed that such switching be viewed as the switching of linguacultural codes, thus allowing us to stress the importance of viewing translation as a contact of two linguacultures. The process of linguacultural code-switching is based on a number of mechanisms, mental processes and operations, one of them being access to and retrieval of linguistic means used to describe a particular fragment of reality in the target linguaculture. It is understood that effective language retrieval depends on the “distinctness” of linguistic knowledge based on the stimulus-response connection between conceptual information and its linguistic manifestation. It is proposed that frame should be viewed as a mental structure for translator’s linguistic and cultural knowledge. A number of characteristics of the frame which suggest that it can ensure the above-mentioned distinctness of linguistic knowledge were identified. They include the ability of frame structures to form a ‘vision’ of a fragment of reality in a linguaculture, integrate conceptual and linguistic knowledge into a unified single system, facilitate the integration of information into memory structures, create favourable conditions for the activation and retrieval of linguistic knowledge, create the framework for probabilistic forecasting. A comparison of these characteristics with the mechanisms and processes of linguacultural switching has shown that frame-based knowledge can increase their speed and effectiveness, especially in translation from L1 to L2 which is known to be more challenging. It is also hypothesised that the development and use of a frame knowledge base can be made more effective due to reliance on metalinguistic awareness. It provides more conscious knowledge of language, indispensable for a translator, distinctness of linguistic and cultural knowledge, competence in a language at the level of norm and usage, development of translation skills and the ability to code-switch, as well as creative thinking which allows for a more effective search and use of linguistic means. The author makes a conclusion that development of frame-based knowledge of a foreign language should be made systematic as part of professionally oriented foreign language teaching to trainee translators.
The paper presents major linguocognitive characteristics of the cultural concept AMERICAN MATERIALISM with consideration of its role in the American national linguistic worldview as well as of its evaluation dynamics. The research is carried out using the material of historical and publicistic texts devoted to American culture and mentality and through the analysis of the definitions of the word «materialism» provided in modern English language dictionaries. The study reveals the evaluative components of the given concept from both synchronic and diachronic perspectives and highlights the linguistic means which serve to verbalize the concept on the whole and its emotional-expressive side in particular. The definitional analysis also helps to single out the core semantic components of the concept AMERICAN MATERIALISM.
This article explores the ways of displaying fear in the Russian language image of the world. According to the National Corpus of the Russian language, in its most usual manifestation, fear covers and paralyzes; this distressing emotion is caused by somebody, apprehension to lose something or somebody as well as by exposure to an imminent danger, evil, or similar feeling, whether real or imaginary. In the metaphoric mapping fear is defined in relation to the elements of other conceptual areas, including power, fluid, fire, etc., which determine the choice of compatible, “cognate” predicates. By analogy with a hostile force, fear covers, subordinates and subjugates; by analogy with a beast, it moves and nibbles; by analogy with fire, it burns and incinerates. Such use becomes so common that speakers do not pay attention to metaphorical expressions any more almost taking them for the objective characteristic of fear.
The article is devoted to color designation of feelings and emotions in Russian. According to the National Corpus the palette of emotional states used by native speakers is limited to few basic colors and hues, including white, red, pink, green, blue, black and gray. In the Russian lan-guage conscience, different feelings can be painted with the same color, variations of the same emotional state by different hues and colors. So, white is a favorite color for fright, fear, horror and shame; red for resentment, anger and pleasure; pink for pleasure, confusion and happiness; white for shame, resentment, anger and rage; black for resentment, anger and rabies; blue for of-fense, horror and fun; green for fright, anger and happiness; gray for fright and dread. The choice of color terms is determined by an inner conviction that this emotional state is right in such par-ticular color, that the best sample to illustrate this colour is such particular object as lemon, or saffron for yellow; cancer, poppy, or peony for red; chalk, paper, or canvas for white.
This publication examines the ways and means of displaying the concept of justice in the Russian language picture of the world in order to show how the meaning of the analyzed concept varies in relation to the main human values. The National Corpus of the Russian language allows us Корпусные исследования 29 to establish that in the Russian language consciousness the idea of justice is defined in relation to a great number of sometimes heterogeneous concepts ‒ truth, faith, law, honor, honesty, equality, love, etc. This heterogeneity is based on the diversity of subject areas, as well as on the extreme diversity of ideas about justice. In this sense, justice is selective and relative, because axiological norms serving as basis to judgments about justice are selective and relative as well.
At present have a considerable amount of works devoted to the notions of genre and discourse at their disposal, however the variety of genres of political discourse has not yet been fully described. That is why the key goal of this article is singling out and describing president’s victory speech as a genre of political discourse. The method of functional description developed by E.I.Sheygal has been used as a basis for this work because it is possible to speak about partial functional similarity of these two genres. In the article one is presented with the analysis of the genre of victory speech from the point of view of integrative, inspirative and performative functions carried out also by inaugural speeches. In addition, two new functions are singled out – interdiscursive and expressive. The former consists in implicit and explicit referring to predecessors’ discourses and in appealing to common knowledge shared by the author and the audience. The latter gives decisive influence on stylistic characteristic of words, i.e. on the choice of expressive lexis. The overview on the functions of victory speeches is supported by examples taken from two Barack Obama’s victory speeches (of 2008 and 2012 respectively). The choice of illustrative material is explained by high concentration of stylistic devices and the author’s remarkable skill of compiling speeches for public performances. The results of the present work are in correlation with its goals: the functional difference between victory speeches and inaugural ones are considered relevant enough for discussing the former as a separate genre.
This paper presents an overview of Russian and foreign existing approaches that have been practiced in relation to the compilation of lexical minima. Special attention is paid to the most influential English-speaking tradition, as well as the German-speaking tradition. The purpose of the review is to follow the development of lexical list science and also to define the criteria list compilers should be oriented in order to compose the best lexical minima for the modern user. The first chapter of the article discusses Russian approaches to the lexical minima compilation, the second chapter discusses the approaches used abroad, the third chapter compares domestic and foreign traditions and summarizes the review. The review given in the article gives grounds for the conclusion that the creation of LM requires a combination of both statistical and communicatively oriented methods. In addition, to compile an up-to-date and reliable corpus it is necessary to have an equal proportion parts of the data analyzed: in addition to the fiction texts corpus, authors should refer to the oral corpus data, as well as sources diverse in style and genre, such as newspaper, art and academic corpses, and internet speech corpus.
This paper attempts to offer a framework for a broad stroke reconstruction of metonymy as a process. It offers a critical overview of the phenomenon of metonymy which is termed as a process of mapping of one concept or its part into another concept within the same idealized cognitive model.
Here it is argued that this cognitive approach to metonymy may well be used to recostruct the origin of metonymy, with dating the initial stage of it as far back as the Acheulean. It is also claimed that metaphor is genealogically related to metonymy, which may be proven by the analysis of different forms of paleolithic industry and art.
Famous South Korean writer Park Kyongni’s novel “Daughters of Pharmacist Kim”covers the period from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century which was tragic for Korean people and their social norms because of the Japanese occupation. It depicts particularly the religious beliefs of Korean people, the relationships in the society and the family, the role of the woman, and the daily life of people of different social groups (aristocrats, the wealthy, servants).
The objective of this article is to critically analyze the translation of the novel that touches upon many phenomena exotic for most Russian readers, such as the national identity of Korean culture or the material and spiritual life of Korean society.
The comparison of the Korean and the Russian texts shows that the translation of some ethnographic realia does not quite match the original. For example, some words related to the following phenomena are translated incorrectly: Korean traditional underfloor heating (ondol), superstitions, Koreans’ religious beliefs and their perception of ancestors’ spirits, supernatural forces, mourning ceremonies, and attire worn to a funeral. In addition to believing in ancestors’ spirits, Koreans also believed in prophecies. For example, children of someone who died of arsenic poisoning were believed to be destined to leave no male offspring. This prophecy comes true in the novel: Pharmacist Kim’s first son dies in childhood and six daughters are born afterwards. Koreans paid special attention to shamans and believed in their supernatural essence. To this day, Koreans’ religious beliefs dating back to ancient times and various folk beliefs peacefully coexist with other world religions. In modern South Korea, people still observe customs and traditions related to funeral rites and wakes, they fear and revere the spirits of the dead, and perform “feeding ancestors’ spirits” ceremonies twice a year on certain days chosen according to the lunar calendar.
In addition to the shortcomings of the Russian translation described above, some dialectal items of the Southern province Kyungsan-do are translated incorrectly, and so are occasionally rendered the rules of the traditional verbal etiquette. It may be considered as a gross error because the latter are anchored in the very essence of Korean language and make up an important part of Korean mentality.
Conclusion: So, this analysis of conveying background information through Korean realia in the novel «Daughters of Pharmacist Kim» confirms the theorists’ conclusion that the translator must know background cultural information of the source text. Errors and flaws found in the translation of some ethnographic realia show that those errors and flaws are not likely to affect significantly the novel’s content or its artistic value. At the same time, the fictional quality of the novel is affected by the lack of translator’s knowledge of its dialectal peculiarities and some facts of non-material culture related to customs, elements of cult and public relations among Koreans. All of the above leads to the incorrect perception of some cultural realia of Korea described in the novel of Korean classic writer Park Kyongni.
The article deals with the Christmas messages of two Spanish monarchs, Juan Carlos I and Philip VI, issued from 1975 to 2018. These texts are considered to be a ritual genre of institutional discourse and are analyzed in the context of political rhetoric. Since the restoration of the monarchy in Spain in 1975, the Spanish King’s Christmas messages are thought to be the main instrument of communication of the Head of State with his citizens. Although they do not have any legal status and belong to the realm of customs and traditions, these speeches receive wide media coverage because they are one of the few occasions when the monarch addresses the Spanish people on television. This paper highlights the idea that the messages are ideologically driven and politically motivated since their major purpose is to strengthen the image of the monarchy and to convince people of the necessity and advantages of peaceful coexistence, respect for the law, and national pride. The article also focuses on the images of the past, the future, the speaker, the addressee (Spanish society), and the country. The scientific value of this paper is in providing a comparative analysis of the communicative potential of the Christmas speeches issued by Juan Carlos I and Felipe VI. It was revealed that the two monarchs appealed to the same values and feelings of their people. Juan Carlos I and Felipe VI underlined the importance of peaceful coexistence in Spain, a highly democratic country where the monarch is the symbol of its unity and permanence. As for linguistic aspects, the speeches comply with the rules of classical oratory and are characterized by a set of common features: for instance, both monarchs employ the same rhetorical devices and communicative strategies in order to impact the audience and make the message more direct and influential. Nevertheless, Felipe VI makes his messages more personal, emotional and appealing, in comparison with the messages of his predecessor. The authors described invariant and variative features of the Christmas speeches issued by two Spanish monarchs taking into account some differences which can be explained by the social, economic and political context of modern Spain.
Phraseological units of a language, including proverbs and anti-proverbs, take the center stage in studying cultural peculiarities of a nation. Nowadays, the reflection of gender in languages has much gained in importance and scholars are particularly interested in anti-proverbs which can be defined as alterations of traditional paremias manifesting the changes happening in the society. The ultimate aim of this study is to define the role of the anti-proverbs with gender components in the formation of women’s images and anti-images in the English and Russian languages as well as to conduct a comparative analysis of these images. To achieve this goal, the author collected relevant items from dictionaries and Internet sources, as well as analyzed the use of anti-proverbs with gender components in both languages. This analysis made it possible to identify and correlate the images of women formed by means of paremiological units. As a result, this study allowed us to conclude that in both languages the anti-proverbs emphasize the negative characteristics of women, however, unlike in English, in the Russian language, women are heavily criticized. This conclusion is supported by the lexical analysis: in the Russian anti-proverbs women are characterized not only with the help of lexis with negative connotations, but also by means of vulgarisms and taboo words. Thus, it should be noted that despite the fact that the anti-proverbs are ironic and humorous in nature, they reflect gender images fixed in a culture.
This article explores the behavior of nouns with a -k- affix or derivative affixes used by adult and adolescent native speakers. Both predominant and marginal variants of “condensate” reference correlation are traced based on the internet usage data survey and analysis. The article separates poly referential and mono referential lexems. It analyses comprehension of ka-nouns depending on their context of use.
Internet usage allows to distinguish five mono referential nouns (ochka - ‘full-time education’, nastolka - ‘board game’, lichka - ‘private message’, vkusnyashka - ‘delicious food’, palyonka - ‘fake vodka’) from 32 others lexemes.
A dominant value is derived for each poly referential unit. The usage of the above word meanings is quantitatively predominant. The usage of the dominant meanings is a convolution of set expressions that are drawn towards termhood and idiomaticness.
The article considers the content of the concept ‘terpimost’ (‘tolerance’ and ‘toleration’) according to its usage fixed in the National Corpus of the Russian language. In its most usual meanings terpimost’ flourishes, develops, pacifies, gives the freedom of choice, plays a role, dominates, attracts etc. Terpimost’ is manifested towards hardships (when something unpleasant is endured), someone else’s opinion, position, conduct, flaws of others; in these cases terpimost’ is viewed as a virtue. In the axiological sense, it is selective since it depends on certain regulatory mechanisms and rules which are established in every sociocultural environment. Terpimost’ in the Russian language image of the world is metaphorized as a plant which blooms, as a Lordship that rules and grants a right, as a power that reigns, as a wave that propagates, as a benefit that attracts.
The paper explores the potential of language corpora in coping with the issues of building cross-cultural expertise. Misusing speech patterns with distinctive social class connotations may impede non-native speakers’ communication in English. Discrepancies in recommendations of textbooks, reference books, and scientific research hinder teaching English speech etiquette, which is seen as the critical component of sociolinguistic competence. The analysis of the language corpus data for using pardon as an apology is aimed at evaluating its potential as the source of sociolinguistic information in teaching English speech etiquette.
The article is based on observations made while working on Academic German-Russian Dictionary. Modern dictionaries are mostly based on the earlier publication, so a substantial part of the work on updating the dictionary is to overcome its inertia. The study deals with specific mechanisms for updating all parts of the dictionary entry. The example of lexicorgaphic processings of neologisms shows the principles of including new lemmas into academic bilingual dictionaries. It is emphasized that the actual frequency is not yet a sufficient basis for the lexicographic fixation of the "trendy" word in the academic dictionary. The word has to demonstrate stable frequency of use for several years. In the article, the principles of dictionary fixing of changes in the semantic structure of a word are discussed in detail. Based on the concept of lexicographical equivalence, the autors show how to update the translation part of the dictionary entry.