In his seminal work «Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft», Ferdinand Tönnies back in the late nineteenth century already predicted that the end of the gesellschaft era will be marked by the appearance of new gemeinschafts, which may give birth to a new culture. Nowadays, we may be witnessing the emergence of such gemeinschafts in the form of self-isolated local communities (ecovillages, intentional and religious communities, kin’s domain settlements, etc.). The situation in Russia is unique and unforeseen by Tönnies — new local gemeinschafts coexist in the same country and even in the same ethno-religious environment with the remaining old ones — territorially isolated local communities (remote hard-to-reach villages). Based on the identified features of a gemeinschaft, the article compares territorially isolated and self-isolated local communities (on the example of the so-called kin’s domain settlements — its most widespread variety in Russia) with an ideal gemeinschaft. The author concludes that territorially isolated communities are closer to an ideal gemeinschaft. This can be partly explained by the fact that kin’s domain settlements are still at the initial stage of their development. They grew out of the gesellschaft and bear some of its traits. And even now, gemeinschaft features in kin’s domain settlements are prevailing over the gesellschaft ones as evolution towards an ideal gemeinschaft continues. Nevertheless, new gemeinschafts will remain qualitatively different social ties as compared to the old ones. The data were collected in remote villages and kin’s domain settlements using such methods as in-depth interviews and observations with elements of participant observation.
This paper examines patterns of support for conservative attitudes toward abortion, divorce, and premarital sex in nine societies of the former Soviet Union. We use the World Values Survey data from Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan collected in 2011–2013 to discuss the reasons of lifestyle intolerance. Using latent class and other multivariate analyzes, we find that the degree of religiosity is a more important predictor of conservative values than is the Islamic cultural legacy. For instance, people in the Christian and very religious countries of Armenia and Georgia are far more likely to condemn sex before marriage or abortion than are Muslims in more secular Kazakhstan. Interestingly, the watershed between the heterogeneous and uniform societies does not coincide with the economic divide as there are rich and poor countries in the sample. Instead, the watershed is best described by the country's degree of religiosity, which may well be an effect of economic development awhile ago rather than at the present time. Latent class analysis suggests that populations are more heterogeneous with regard to attitudes toward abortion, divorce, and premarital sex in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. In Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, there is more unanimity in reprobation of abortion, divorce, and premarital sex.
The article contains a review of the evolution of style and genres of mass literature as products of mass consumption. We identify two concurrent trends in the development of contemporary mass literature. First, there is a growing integration of the various genres of popular literature. Second, there is differentiation, accentuating a unique and original personality of the author. A stylistic platform for both tendencies is the genre of fantasy. This genre is close to a social mythology, and is able to deliver a non-trivial content of branding (narratives, themes and plots, legends, striking names).Thus, fantasy provides opportunities to effectively integrate the popular literature with artifacts and technologies of other cultural industries in particular, and economy of consumer society in general.
The current approach to organizations as stable and static entities often considers changes as a transition from less favourable to more favourable stages and conditions. However if one considers that organizations are process – oriented and experience continuous change, organizational boundaries will immediately become questioned, and the researcher will have a good reason to draw for analysis of discourse, ethnomethodology, drama, and stories. Stories and narratives are multiple, contextual, and highly dependent both on the content and the narrator and the process of narration.
This article investigates how narrative analysis (also called “storytelling”) can methodologically and meaningfully enrich the existing understanding and idea of organizations. Through the analysis and interpretation of the history of the existence of a post office, The concepts of organizational “drama” by B. Czarniawska, “unmanaged organization” by Y. Gabriel and “storytelling organization” by D. Boje are applied to the analysis and interpretation of one remote postal office existence.
Narratives allow revealing the “inner kitchen” and “insights” of the organization and trace the actions of participants at the micro-level in addition to attention to events, senses and feelings of heroes and the narrator. The proposed story uncovers and reflects the existing conflicts between the center and the periphery, the administration and the production, the formal – universal and the informal – local.
The article deals with historical and sociological reconstruction and critical reappraisal of the negotiated order theory proposed by A. Strauss for the study of organizations. The paper analyzes the central concept of this perspective - negotiations, outlines key conceptual connections with symbolic interactionists research, considers the potentialities of negotiated order theory for explaining some organizational phenomena, examines the main limitations of this approach for studying organizations.
The article focuses on downshifting among the modern Russian intelligentsia as a type of spatial mobility associated with leaving cities and the general trend of de- urbanization. The author examines the migration of intellectuals out of the city, the format and nature of mobile infocommunications in the everyday practices of the migrants. e emergence and development of internet communication greatly simpli es travel over long distances (within the country, to neighboring countries, to other continents). One of the varieties of this mobility is associated with relocation to out-of-city spaces and a slowdown in the pace of life — downshifting, accompanied by a fundamental simpli cation of consumer needs and, in general, a change in the lifestyle. At the same time, the life of downshi ers becomes closely associated with remote work, becoming a primary need to maintain an economic source of livelihood. e number of professions and specialties that allow working online is constantly growing. The attitude of downshifters to modern infocommunications in the context of life outside the urban environment is investigated and a typology of the role of modern means of communication in the everyday practices of downshi ers is proposed. e supporting empirical material was gathered during eldwork in the Manturovsky District of the Kostroma Region (2015–2017) where 37 in-depth interviews were conducted with residents of small settlements, supplemented by 10 in-depth interviews with informants living in small settlements in other regions of Russia. In the historical and anthropological perspective the author highlights the process of “production” of new localities (A. Appadurai) — the transfer of the meanings of urban life to the out-of-city space and the emergence of a new life world.
Despite the attention of researchers to the teaching community, the professional identity of this group remains poorly understood. In this article, the professional identity of teachers is seen through the prism of stories about the turning points of a professional biography: the choice of profession, the adaptation to the school, the experience of (temporary) termination of work and the discussion of teacher’s professional characteristics. Th e empirical data for the study consists of 49 interviews with teachers in schools of diff erent type (18 schools with standard and 21 with advanced curriculum) randomly selected in the Vasileostrovsky and Nevsky districts of St. Petersburg. Th e authors show that respondents construct a consistent narrative about the choice of their profession, interpreting certain events as determining the future profession. Th e story of one’s own teacher as a model refl ects the respondent’s pedagogical attitude. Th e adoption of a teacher’s identity largely depends on the interaction with the team, to which respondents attach great importance. Th is study shows that the key to assessing the adaptation of the teacher to the school for both external observers and the teacher itself is the disciplinary code. Th e change of profession is viewed as natural for those teachers who do not cope with maintaining discipline in class. An interesting feature of Russian teachers is their comparison of their profession with low-skilled labor: both the real work experience outside the school and the alternatives considered by the teachers do not imply the use of the education they have.
Informational noise is one of the main ecological problems of the communicative environment. The virtualization of the consumer society through Internet highly increases the amount of noise. We undertook a pilot study of the effect of noise on information consumption on the web by methods of participant observation and indepth interviews with active users. We suggested the typology of informational noise, the parameters to assess the strength of its influence and the possible transformation of consumer practices under its influence.
The article contains comparison between social-psychological profiles of the confessional groups of Russia (Muslims, Christian Orthodox, Jews) and content of canonical texts of these religions (in particular, Laws of Shariah). Psychological types and social norms are analyzed on the bases of the Russian urban sampling (2002-2004), using the KOMPASS methodology. The impact of historical conditions of the development of confessional groups on the norms of their market relations (especially containing in the Shariah) are considered. The data shows that such psychological types, as "innovators" and "socially responsible" are predominant among Muslims. The "organizational capability" is of high value among Muslims too. According to J. Shumpeter's conception, it is not profit, but those three aspects are of main importance in relation to "The Enterprising function" for any society. The author makes a suggestion, that some aspects of economical doctrine of the classic Islam could be more effective for dissolving the modern global crisis, than the remedies proposed by the liberal model of the world economics.
This paper critically examines classical and modern studies of social mobility (SM): the author analyzes the basic methodological principles of crucial works in this field to present a brief overview of important discussions on current publications. Critics of the 'traditional' SM program argue that the application of the conventional principles of analysis is not relevant for the 'new conditions' associated with large-scale global changes both in the social and sociological environment: the spread of postcolonial and feminist approaches, de-professionalization trends, erasure of national boundaries and blurring boundaries between social classes. The turn towards individualization in modern SM research and development of biographical analysis allow focusing on the subjective aspects of changing positions in the social space. However, these approaches are retrospective. The author particularly examines the implications of the 'mobile turn' for SM research: the 'weak' and the 'strong' programs for advanced research that have the resources to describe the complex and controversial mobilities dynamics at various levels. The author argues that social mobility research should focus on the strong program that implements different scaling of the spatial and temporal boundaries, the possibilities of using key components of the mobilities paradigm — mobility systems, instantaneous time.
This report contains the main results of the author’s investigations of the “job seekers” category in the Russian and the German labour markets. The research lasted many years and was based on the qualitative methods of sociology. A special attention is given to the problem of involving the unemployed persons in work and to the evaluation of the risks in the state policy of the social and working relations regulation. On the base of the analysis of interviews with the job-seekers, the Nizhny Novgorod district job centers officials, the Russian and the German experts, the author exposes a common liberal tendency in stimulating employment in Russia and Germany.