Sex differences in aspects of independent versus interdependent self-construal and depressive symptoms were surveyed among 5,320 students from 24 nations. Men were found to perceive themselves as more self-contained whereas women perceived themselves as more connected to others. No significant sex differences were found on two further dimensions of self-construal, or on a measure of depressive symptoms. Multilevel modeling was used to test the ability of a series of predictors derived from a social identity perspective and from evolutionary theory to moderate sex differences. Contrary to most prior studies of personality, sex differences in selfconstrual were larger in samples from nations scoring lower on the Gender Gap Index, and the Human Development Index. Sex differences were also greater in nations with higher pathogen prevalence, higher self-reported religiosity, and in nations with high reported avoidance of settings with strong norms. The findings are discussed in terms of the interrelatedness of selfconstruals and the cultural contexts in which they are elicited and the distinctiveness of student samples.
The article is devoted to study of negativity bias and basic values.
The performances of Russian-English bilinguals and English monolinguals living in the United States, and Farsi-English bilinguals living in the United Arab Emirates and Farsi monolinguals living in Iran, were compared on the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults to investigate whether the sociocultural context modulates the influence of bilingualism on an individual’s creativity. The findings revealed an interactive influence of bilingualism and sociocultural context on creative potential, suggesting that the contribution of bilingual development to creative potential differs across cultures.
This article first gives a brief overview of my adventures in developing two theories of values and the methods to measure them. First came my theory of the basic values on which individuals in all cultures differ. Then, quite unexpectedly, the opportunity arose to develop a theory of cultural values on which societies differ. As the story unfolds, I tell of failures, triumphs, and challenges. Values research has expanded in the past two decades beyond my wildest early imaginings. The second section of the article presents some ideas about future directions worth pursuing in values research. It describes competing theories and controversies as well as ways to go beyond them. I hope it will stimulate further advances in this field to which I have devoted more than 20 years.
Since decades, cross-cultural psychology examines moral values using data from standardized surveys, assuming that values guide human behavior. We add to this literature by studying the link between moral values and various forms of prosocial behavior, using data from respondents of the sixth World Values Survey in Germany who participated in an online behavioral experiment. The experiment consists of a series of incentivized tasks and allows us to elaborate the association between survey-measured values and three facets of observed prosocial behavior. The evidence boils down to three findings. While (a) emancipative values relate to higher common pool contributions and (b) higher donations to charitable organizations, (c) secular values are linked with more productive and less protective investments. As these results conform to key theories and reach empirical significance in a major postindustrial nation, we conclude that we have important evidence at hand highlighting the potential of combined survey-experiment methods to establish value–behavior links that are otherwise inexplorable.
This article is devoted to assessment of cross-cultural invariance properties of a new scale to measure 19 basic human values
Since 1987, a multitude of studies referring to the Schwartz (1992) structural model of human values have been published. Although most studies support this conceptual approach, few were based on representative samples. The implementation of the biennial European Social Survey (ESS) in 2002, made responses from 71 representative national samples from 32 countries to a 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire available for assessing this model of human values. We present structural analyses of these data using a theory-based approach to multidimensional scaling (Bilsky, Gollan & Döring, 2008) that can be applied to optimally assess the fit of data to diverse theories. The analyses support the circular structure of basic values across countries and within countries across time. They also replicate two findings based on other samples, surveys, and methods of analysis (Fontaine et al., 2008): Deviations from the structure are fewer and the contrast between protection and growth values is sharper in more developed societies
Testing for invariance of measurements across groups (such as countries or time points) is essential before meaningful comparisons may be conducted. However, when tested, invariance is often absent. As a result, comparisons across groups are potentially problematic and may be biased. In the current study, we propose utilizing a multilevel structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to provide a framework to explain item bias. We show how variation in a contextual variable may explain noninvariance. For the illustration of the method, we use data from the second round of the European Social Survey (ESS).
This article challenges the common assumption that basic human values remain stable during the lifetime of an individual. It demonstrates that migrants’ values are highly likely to change after emigrating to a new country. Using cross-sectional data, we estimated the link between individual values of intra-European migrants and country of birth and residence, as well as values that are common there. Values were measured by Schwartz’s questionnaire as well as Inglehart’s Self-Expression items. Cross-classified multilevel regression models were applied to the sample of migrants, selected from five rounds of the European Social Survey. The results demonstrated the significance of both the country of residence and the country of birth as well as values, which are common in these countries. Surprisingly, the association of migrants’ values with the country of residence appeared to be higher than the one of country of birth. Furthermore, migrants’ values better correspond to values that are common in the country of residence than values widespread in the country of birth. Assuming that value-based selfselection of migrants is negligible, the results support the idea that basic values are subject to change over an individual life span and not only during one’s formative years
Using World Values Survey data from several dozen countries around the world, this article analyzes the relationship between postmaterialist values and bribery (dis)approval in a multilevel framework. We find that people, who place stronger emphasis on postmaterialist values, tend to justify bribery more. However, the “ecological” effect of postmaterialism operates in the exactly opposite direction: A higher prevalence of postmaterialist values induces more bribery disapproval, and especially among postmaterialists themselves. In our view, this happens because the large number of people who internalized postmaterialist values generate positive social externalities which strengthen negative attitudes toward corruption. We outline a theoretical framework that explains why and how these externalities may emerge. Our results contribute to the literature on the sociocultural factors of corruption, provide a better understanding of the complex nature of postmaterialism, and also might be interesting in the light of ongoing discussions on whether moral attitudes are culturally universal or culturally specific.
Values are related to coping strategies. However, little is known about the relationship between values and coping strategies among people suffering from chronic illnesses. This study investigates the mediating role of coping strategies specific to asthma on the relationship between the value of health, the value of an exciting life, and anxiety/depression symptoms among Russian and French adolescents with asthma. Adolescents aged 14 to 16 years with moderate and severe asthma (N = 100, 58 males) were recruited in Russia and France and completed the Rokeach Value Survey, the Asthma-Specific Coping Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Among Russian adolescents, the coping strategy of hiding asthma mediated the relationship between the value of health and depression symptoms. Among French adolescents, the coping strategies of ignoring asthma and adopting a restricted lifestyle mediated the relationship between the value of an exciting life and depression/anxiety symptoms. Among Russian and French girls, the coping strategy of ignoring asthma mediated the relationship between the value of health and anxiety/depression symptoms. Valuing an exciting life, French adolescents used coping strategies that led them to ignore asthma more, and as a result, experienced greater levels of anxiety and depression. Valuing health, Russian adolescents used coping strategies in which they hid their asthma less, but experienced more symptoms of depression. Valuing health, Russian and French girls used coping strategies in which they ignored their asthma less and experienced symptoms of anxiety and depression less.
To what extent do value priorities vary across countries and to what extent do individuals within countries share values? We address these questions using three sets of data that each measure values differently: the Schwartz Value Survey for student and teacher samples in 67 countries (N=41,968), the Portrait Values Questionnaire for representative samples from 19 European countries (N=42,359), and the World Value Survey for representative samples from 62 countries (N=84,887). Analyses reveal more consensus than disagreement on value priorities across countries, refuting strong claims that culture determines values. Values associated with autonomy, relatedness, and competence show a universal pattern of high importance and high consensus. Only conformity values show patterns suggesting they are good candidates for measuring culture as shared meaning systems. We rule out reference-group and response style effects as alternative explanations for the results and discuss their implications for value theory, cross-cultural research, and value-based intergroup conflict.