This article deals with the problem of influences exerted by ancient and medieval legal and narrative sources on the Frankish law during the reign of king Clovis (481–511). This issue hadn’t sufficient attention in contemporary scholarly works. Among the sources, which could be available for Frankish officials and lawyers composed the Laws of Salian Franks (Lex Salica), authors explains both the Germanic sources (such as Code of Euric and Burgundian laws), and late Roman codes been in use in Gaul territory in the 5th – 6th centuries (Breviary of Alaric and some legal compilations), and even Celtic sources (The Welsh canons) and nonlegal texts (Exodus). Using the textual critisism, scholar proves that the biggest volume of textual adoptions in Lex Salica was a result of the long-time relations and collisions between the Franks and their southern neighbours – Burgundians and Visigoths. Influence of the late Roman legal culture on the Laws of Salian Franks was very close, namely it ends on the establishing of slave rank as “instrumentum vocale” (cattle with voice). This state was a feature of all late Roman codes and compilations based on it (such as Theodosian Code, Breviary of Alaric, Code of Justinian). The profoundest influence of the Burgundian, Visigothic and (in a less degree) late Roman laws on the Lex Salica was revealed in those titles, which are concerned to the social structure in Northern Gaul of the end of 5th – early 6th centuries. Firstly, it refers to the position of slaves in estate, degree of their legal capability and participation of business with free persons, compensation for their injuries and death. Then, some legal procedures of Burgundian laws (for example, the order of returning of the person sold into slavery from abroad, paying of pledge for a slave, which had been subjected to tortures on charges of third party) also had been put in the Laws of Salian Franks. Finally, the influence of the Old Testament (Exodus) and the so-called “Welsh canons” (Canones Wallici) can be find in the case of sale and division of slave accused in the murder of servant of another person between their owners.
This article discusses the problem of comparative study with digital and textual sources using the example of the Sound Toll Registers and Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti. Both sources contain statistical information on commercial ship voyages, which one is important for the history of maritime trade and commercial shipping of the Baltic region. But at the same time, the source’s logic and visual forms differ a lot. In order to introduce both sources’ potential to researchers, there is a brief description of the Sound Toll Registers and Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti presented. Because of differences in sources’ internal logic and visual forms researches have to compare it carefully, not to lose information or meet incomprehensible results. In order to avoid such dangers, I invite researches to try my approach to compare the Sound Toll Registers and Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti. My approach is focused on careful big data’s analyze and examining of statistical sample’s representativeness in time. This approach is based on comparable samplings of the sources’ data and case-studies. It was examined on commercial shipping in the port of SaintPetersburg in 1760 during the Seven Years War.
The article proposes an identification of the place-name ustaulm / *Ustahólmr witnessed in the runic inscription of the mid-eleventh century on the stone from Ålstad (Nordland, Norway) as a Scandinavian variant of the Slavic oeсonym *Оусть-островъ, which is supposed to designate a settlement of the Rus’ on the island of St. Aitherios (presumably, contemporary Berezan’ Island) at the mouth of the Dnieper. The article suggests that the three main camp-settlements of the Rus’ on their way down the Dnieper River in the 10th and 11th centuries were named in this runic inscription: Russia = Kiev (= *Garðar), Vitichev (= *Vitahólmr) and a camp on an island at the mouth of the Dnieper *Estuary-island (= *Ustahólmr).
The article deals with the political, theological and cultural dialogue between papal Rome and Imperial Constantinople. The period of 6-8th centuries is the one of Byzantine domination in Rome, and a number of Roman frescoes belong to this period, whose style and iconography give insights into the theological and political polemics, or into the cultural influence of early Byzantine art on the local tradition. Art works are rarely used or not used at all as sources in the study of relations between the two capitals and iconoclasm. This study can helpfully contribute to the overall research view on the subject
The article examines the phenomenon of human security in the context of the methodology of history as an academic discipline. The definitions of traditional and nontraditional threats and dangers are suggested, the subject of matter is examined from the angle of security as a political concept at all. In the article the latter is interpreted as a basis for regulating the status of violence. Considered the genesis of the logic of the evolution and nature of humanitarian security. It is shown that after the Cold War a broad interpretation of security, was formed, it is based on mutual trust of states and on international law, which has revealed new perspectives for Security Studies, and led to the emergence of the concept of humanitarian security. The sovereignty of the individual and the state sovereignty emerged from the equilibrium state. Formulated understanding of humanitarian security in its pure form as a protection against existential threats (human security, safety of local worlds and communities, security interests of the person) and “mixed”: economic, food, health and so forth. In its “mixed” form humanitarian security is transformed into a humanitarian - social one. It is shown that for the historical reconstruction of the evolution of the concept of humanitarian security can be effective the principles of the history of concepts (Begriffsgeschichte) of Reinhard Koselleck, the theory of conceptual changes in the historicity of thought of Quentin Skinner, approaches of the socio-cultural (anthropological) history, history from below, local history, the history of the body, microhistory, etc. It opens up the new perspectives by political scientists to analyze the problems of humanitarian and human security.
History-oriented systems are becoming more and more important element of the information environment of historical science and education. The article deals with the status and trends of history-oriented systems on the level of concepts, development approaches, content, sources, and other parameters. Several types of systems are characterized. Special attention is paid to the research potential of the resources and their means of instrumental support for various types of historical researches. The electronic catalog "History-oriented information systems" (digitalhistory.ru) was used for the research. The catalog contains more than 800 Russian and foreign resources created in 1990—2015 and about 500 publications.
The article deals with the problem of the reconstruction of historical facts as the main task of a historian. The author sees the historical reconstruction based on the various types of information (the unique information, the verified one and the repeated one) as a description the most close to the historical reality.
In this article the author addresses the issue of advertisement creating a special time display that does not portray the actual everyday realty. Instead, it shows people's perception of their desired reality in a given era. One of such 'desired realities' is the historical past. The paper offers a classification of such references to 'historic motives' in creation of advertising content. Multiple examples are analysed.
The article deals with the problem of three different types of historical information (the unique information, the verified one and the repeated one), the features of their textological analysis and their use in historical studies.
The problem of correlation between the two types of historical knowledge – scientific and socially oriented – are considered through the opposition of two tendencies in the historical knowledge of 20 – early 21 century – fragmentation and the crisis of narrative/renarrativization. The study is realized on the basis of neo-classical phenomenological concept of historical knowledge and in relating of explication the strategies of history with the types of rationality / models of science. It is shown that at the turn of XX-XXI centuries the rapidly unfolding during the twentieth century the process of fragmentation of scientific historical knowledge, manifested in the formation of new disciplines/subdisciplines historical sciences, scientific areas and subject fields, is in clear contradiction with the process of renarrativization – the desire of a socially oriented history once again to take the form of large-scale – up to global history – narrative.
One of the first more or less extensive Russian official accounts, describing Muscovite embassies to European courts, depicts the mission of Vladimir Plemiannikov and Istoma Maloy to Emperor Maximilian I in 1517. Its reliability can now be examined anew due to several documents recently found (or reassessed) in state archives in Moscow and Innsbruck. This documentary evidence reveals the official report of the ambassadors to be not ingenuous and complete description of all relevant events (as it presents itself on the first glance) but rather a sophisticated construct. The authors' specific narrative strategy was based on selectivity of their account (where dubious episodes were omitted) and accentuation of those sides of their activity, that could show them in the most favourable light (as most devoted and skilful servants) in the eyes of the Grand Duke and his counsellors.
This article presents the results of the codicological study of account books one of the salt enterprises at Sol Vychegodskaya that belonged to the Spaso-Prilutsky monastery. The methodological approach combines the techniques of formulary, paleographical and watermark analysis with the methodology of micro-historical research. This approach allowed us to identify the impact of different practices and groups of factors — personal, local, and Central to the nature of record keeping. The books cover a time of economic recovery in 1640s, in which salt production and trade have played an important role, reflected the complexity of the processes occurring at this time in the country.
The case of early modern Ireland exemplifies that state building in early modern Europe was also a product of discursive struggle, in which different sides in the attempt to take advantage of new opportunities appealed to the available discourse of legitimation. In 1570, as a result of intensification of the processes of the conquest of Ireland internal conflicts came to the fore. The reflection on the issue of governance in Ireland manifested itself in the emerging discourses and counter-discourses of power. Three types of discourses can be identified: the discourse of the deputyship, the discourse of the entire administrative apparatus during the period of consensus with lord deputies, and the discourse of Catholic nobility and gentry. Generally, the discourse of Irish administrative apparatus of Ireland was future-oriented and more depersonalized in which the apparatus of government was distinct from the political community. Conservative counter-discourse which emerged in response to the processes of displacement emphasized seigneurial model of royal power, consensual models of government and justified chosenness of Irish elite to govern the kingdom. In this traditional discourse office-holding was woven into the fabric of society since governing was the social role of the nobility and gentry.