Supply chains developed through participation of foreign suppliers exert considerable influence on countries’ insertion into global value chains (GVCs). Close relationship between supply and value chains makes it possible to use statistical data on GVCs to get complex picture of supply chain dynamics in various economic sectors. The ultimate goal of the research is to uncover and explain specifics of supply chains development in leading oil refining exporting countries based on the value-added statistics. Analysis of countries’ backward participation in GVCs allows to understand development as well as industrial and regional structure of supply chains, into which national producers integrate as buyers of components. Leading oil refining exporters demonstrate different levels of national production dependence on foreign suppliers. The main factor that influences globalization of supply chains is a presence of advanced oil production industry in the country. World leading oil producers, Saudi Arabia and Russia, depend on foreign supplies to a minimum extent. USA, which are currently intensively expanding oil extraction, reduce offshore deliveries of resources. India and the Netherlands with low oil production volumes as well as Singapore and Korea with no oil extraction at all are forced to supply oil and other oil refining components – chemicals, equipment, machinery, from abroad. Countries’ forward participation in GVCs together with the statistics on origin of value added in final demand allows to conduct analysis of national companies’ participation in foreign producers’ global supply chains as sellers of components. From geographical point of view consumption of oil refining products, supplied by leading oil refining exporters to the international market, is concentrated in the domestic regions of the countries. This fact indicates the regional character of global supply chains. Supplies of oil refining from the Netherlands and Russia show the highest degree of regionalization, while supplies from the USA and India the lowest. The sectoral consumption of oil refining shows similar structure for all analyzed countries – around half of the consumption occurs in international manufacturing sector, about quarter goes to business services sector, significant role in consumption plays global construction industry. The research results may be used by companies to make strategic decisions on logistics and supply chains, and by governmental bodies to develop measures to regulate foreign operations of national producers.
There is no unambiguous answer to what is the driver for modern logistics. According to practicing logisticians, optimal solutions can be found only during the process of physical distribution. From the point of view of academic science, all optimization issues in logistics are determined at the stage of theoretical background and project design. Obviously, a more complex approach to solve the problem of increasing competitiveness by means of efficient supply chain management can be found only as a result of synergy between both theoretical research and practical experience. This statement is mostly applicable to a situation when the market is full of goods, and the need for optimizing procedures is recognized not only on the level of logistics, but on the level of all current operations in the national and world economy as well. The peculiarity of the modern stage of logistics development is in rapid IT implementation of all distribution processes, from the point of origin to the final consumer. This is due to increased manufacturing scale and world trading volume (which has exceeded 8% this year, according to WTO). Hereby it’s crucial to realize that behind each sophisticated software there is a whole complex of analytical models and methods. That is why to be competitive, enterprises should pay special attention to developing analytical approaches to face logistics business challenges.
This article about security problems of material flow management in supply chains of exporters and importers. There is an analysis of system of standards for supporting of international trading and security of supply chains, created by ICO, and recommended to members of ITO. In focus of article is new participant in system of economic operator authorized. Also the principles of collaboration of supply chain agents open for security support in frames «custom-house/custom-house» and «custome-house/business».
The article debates the benchmarking as one of the effective tools for strategic planning and controlling in logistics. The essence of benchmarking and the characteristic of the main stages of its implementation receive the detailed definition in the work. The authors assess the prospects and limitations of the certain types of the benchmarking utilization for the implementation of the strategic cycle of the logistics planning in Russia. Moreover, the article shows how comparative and process benchmarking can be applied in the vertically integrated company. The example is made on the base of supply system reorganizationпример реализации процедур сравнительного и процессного бенчмаркинга для вертикально-интегрированной компании при планировании проекта реорганизации системы снабжения.
Unmanned technology is one of the innovative directions in logistics, which is gradually entering our life. Many companies in Russia and abroad are developing in this direction. How close are they to realization and industrial implementation? What types of unmanned vehicles exist at the moment? This article presents the classification of unmanned technology, as well as a review of the market for existing unmanned solutions, their features and manufacturers. Unmanned vehicles, drones, unmanned water and rail vehicles, as well as robots for cargo handling in a warehouse were considered. Using the press releases from leading manufacturers and customers of unmanned vehicles, an analysis of Russian and foreign experience in the use of unmanned technology in logistics was conducted, the results of which revealed the main areas of their application. The problems that impede the mass implementation of unmanned technologies in logistic processes associated with both imperfection of unmanned technologies and other external factors were also identified. The advantages of unmanned solutions in comparison to traditional vehicles were determined. Prospective areas of application of unmanned technology, promising to increase the efficiency of logistics processes and the level of logistics services were considered.
The article continues A.N. Sterligova’s publication “Logistical context of enterprise business model” (Logistics and Supply Chain Management. – №1 (66). – 2015. – pages 24-34). As it was described in that publication, in a challenging economic environment strategic changes for business can be implemented by changing their business models. The author provided a definition of a business model (BM) as an object connected with defining, creating, distributing, supplying value to customers, and appropriation of profits through their recognition on the market. Logistics was used to develop and use BM. The model of a logistical component was described. The author suggested a set of indexes that evaluate original supplies and results of BM in order to analyze BM effectiveness according to its results and also to decide whether developing a new enterprise BM is necessary when the quality and quantity of original resources is changing.
A further research is aimed to analyze how BM can be used in various industries and to decide if figures of initial resources and results of BM can be made universal.
The present article explains why business models are significant in modern metallurgy in the framework of customer value chain. The authors analyze BM of leading ferrous metallurgy companies bearing on the proposed logistical component of BM and determines variability of its logistical component. The researcher summarizes results of BM industry. The authors examines economic factors that make logistics help companies get required financial figures.
The purpose of this article is to show the possibilities of using stochastic Petri nets for the logistic systems analysis in order to optimize their operation. This article deals with the mathematical apparatus of Petri nets, moreover, it also shows an algorithm for making performance analysis. As an example, the simplest model of unloading a vehicle was developed and analysed to determine the main characteristics of a given model. In order to perform the performance analysis of given Petri net, the state space of this network was constructed and a state space stationary distribution of the the system was found analytically. That allowed to determine the key parameters of the model; Performance analysis was performed without using third-party software. As a result, it has been shown that Petri nets are a simple and convenient tool for logistics systems optimization and design. Therefore, Petri nets can be used as a support mechanism for decisions making at various levels of supply chains.
The article is devoted to the peculiarities of business units interaction developing a flexible customer service policy to provide logistics services. Logistic service represented by specific services, related to the material flow and logistic infrastructure use, is regarded as one of the customer service component. The process of service policy elaboration carried out in close cooperation between logistics and other related departments of the company is presented in two forms. The overall structure of the procedure reflects the logic of service provision to customers by logistics department. Detailed presentation of each step in the procedure clarifies responsibilities of the departments prescribing implemented actions and expected results of each step. The procedure emphasis the focus on the system of logistics service development the base of which is an approach how to develop standards of logistics service. Standards of logistics service take into account the restrictions on the logistics service provision and are the basis for the calculation of logistics tariffs. The paper argues the necessity of time-totime analysis of the adopted customer service policy that can be changed not only by commercial departments, but also by logistics department being the result of logistics service activities optimization. The specific attention of the article is paid to the examination of cross-functional interaction in the company of logistics provider during of the expansion of the logistics service system portfolio by innovative proposals. Not only step by step procedure of designing an innovative portfolio of logistics services, but also the management structure of the logistics provider is described.
The article analyzes the current trends in the economy, associated with the gradual transition of the company from traditional approaches to supply chain management to the "virtual", investigated their underlying causes, as well as an assessment of prospects for the development of this fact. Currently, in most sectors of the supply chain model, used by Henry Ford, it has long lost its relevance. Today is difficult to meet fully vertically integrated company, which independently produces all the parts and components for their finished products, and controls virtually all links in the supply chain independently. The exception may be the companies working in the field of mining. The main advantage of vertical integration is the ability to counter the uncertainty in the external environment by reducing the level of volatility in prices and transaction costs in the supply chain, but at the same time, this form of control will inevitably lead to less flexibility in general and the emergence of additional administrative costs. Market organization relationships in the supply chain and the use of logistics outsourcing strategy, in contrast to maximize capacity utilization and expand the resource base through greater coverage of qualified suppliers. But despite the advantages of this form of interaction between organizations may lead to a large total cost due to transaction costs. Virtual integration can be viewed as an alternative control mechanism, which achieves both operational flexibility and an optimal level of total costs by increasing both external and internal control. Virtual integration necessarily implies a close relationship of logistics and information technology, which allows you to reach a negotiated throughout the supply chain performance of operations and the coordinated planning and control. At the operational level, the use of information technology makes it possible to support interaction between participants in the supply chain when the main logistics operations, and at the tactical level to ensure joint decision-making and monitoring of performance indicators. Currently, the virtual supply chains are showing interest a large number of companies in the long term because they allow you to reduce inventory levels and the execution of client orders, and therefore increase the efficiency of any business. However, virtual supply chains are not only advantages, but also a number of difficulties, including information security risks, the synchronization of information systems, intellectual property rights and others that should be taken into account.
The search and design of links between the company’s performance indices and results of logistics activity nowadays is a relevant tool for increasing competitiveness of Russian companies. Situations when influence of certain logistics costs groups on financial performance indices is underestimated occur considerably often. These cases imply a huge amount of financial resources involved. Thus, the attempt of designing analytical models to assess the correlation between logistics and business performance indices is a relevant issue requiring further investigation and improvement. The article gives analysis of Russian and foreign literature sources devoted to the topic studied; identifies main trends and determines a possible way for further investigations. The article has analytical models to assess the influence of different logistics costs groups on ROI (return on investment) index; numerical example is provided.