The study is devoted to employment of recent vocational graduates. The proportion of middle-school graduates in vocational enrollment has increased essentially over the past decade, which indicates that the choice of vocational trajectories, on average, is now made at lower age. It was established based on the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations that on average 44 percent of students combined work and study in 2010–2015. Vocational students mostly combine and work and study because of financial constraints, their study-work rarely being related to their major. Later on, when making a transition from education to the labor market, vocational graduates have to accept one of the first job offers as they cannot afford a longer job search. The second part of the study draws upon the findings from the 2010–2015 sampling survey of graduate employment administered by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat). It is shown that combining work and study has positive effects on employability of graduates as well as on the size of their starting salaries. In addition, self-funded students and those who combine study with major-related work are more likely to get employed in their field of study after graduation. Education-job mismatch among graduates is found to entail income “penalties”.
We approach higher education as a source of not only private good but also public one. An analysis of oeuvres was aimed at differentiating between formal and substantive meanings of the term “university responsibility”. Substantive meaning of responsibility appeals to criteria beyond knowledge, appreciates the crucial importance of education effects in various aspects of life, and derives from the very fact of interdependence between the university and the society. We believe that importance of university as an institution forming the society may specifically be put into question in Russia, where the high level of education coexists weirdly with the high level of social hardship. An online questionnaire was completed by more than one third of graduates of a Russian confessional (Orthodox) university residing in more than 100 localities of Russia, former Soviet Republics, and other foreign countries. The data on graduates’ shared values and attitudes obtained in the survey was compared to results of national and international surveys on family issues, civic engagement, values, employment, social capital, and consumption practices. Based on this comparison, we suggest that philosophies and attitudes of Orthodox university graduates have many common points that set them aside from the other population of Russia: they are committed to family and civic values, have a strong attitude of service, and participate in social activities to help people in need. Standardized indices of social capital in the sample of Orthodox university graduates are three times higher than those in the national sample of all higher education graduates. We propose to raise a critical discussion of the role of religion in higher education and to dwell specifically on issues of validity of theology as a scientific discipline, effects of bringing religion to high school, and the problem of confessional universities.
The “human factor”, i. e. the conflict and protest behavior of students and faculty, often becomes a key problem during and after university consolidations. This paper provides an insight into reorganization-related university transformations that are perceived as tangible and important by students, approaching the issue from the viewpoint of the radical organizational change theory. Four cases of Russian university mergers are investigated. Data obtained from individual and group interviews with students who attended the universities during the reorganization is used to build clusters of “formal” and “informal” changes that the students tagged as the most important. It transpired that students cared most about changes in the perceived value of their graduate diplomas and their potential status as prospective graduates of a particular university. Meanwhile, the content of education programs and the objective university performance indicators were rarely mentioned by students when they were talking about the possible gains and losses that reorganization could bring about. Instead, they would often refer to changes in the educational process, formal and informal communication within the university, and the university culture and spirit. The findings reveal university characteristics which matter most to students in the case of university reorganization and which thus should be considered when planning and implementing university consolidations.
The paper describes relevancy, aim, scope and technologies of experimental activity conducted by HSE—Perm to set up a university and school cluster as an innovative form of enhancing Perm region teachers’ professional competencies. The authors describe organizational structure of the cluster, determine unique features of applied forms and techniques of cooperation among participants (high school and university teachers), and analyze the results of university and school cluster activities at the first stage of its development. Cluster is an organizational form of efforts combined to achieve competitive advantages in general education system. The key benefit of building clusters is that the educational market is entered by communities of concerned members, instead of individuals. University takes on a leadership role in innovating general education through: training and re-training human resources of general education; updating the syllabus; monitoring training materials and taking direct participation in their development; pursuing research (sociological, economical, psychological, legal, managerial) in education; monitoring quality of education process. The long-term innovative educational project “University and School Cluster” was launched in 2009. The paper compares quantitative measures of teachers’ subject-matter competencies at three stages of university and school cluster development (2009–2011).The authors consider the innovational aspects of cluster-based cooperation to be: advanced information and engineering support of subject departments; development and implementation of a special technology to monitor the level of teachers’ subject-matter competencies through the whole project; individual tutorial support for the process of enhancing teachers’ subject competencies; development of the university and school cluster website, an integrated interactive space for project participants, and filling it with appropriate methodological materials.
The article analyzes the effects of introducing the institute of ranking into the higher education system. The function of ratings is to remedy market failures, to create incentives for competition, and for the efficient choice of education institution by customers. However, the research of the last decade dealing with the influence of ratings on the behavior of universities shows that ratings gained symbolic power in the education service market, by which they provide advantages to certain institutions to the detriment of others. That has created a lack of trusts to ratings and even their boycott by a number of institutions. The consideration of university rankings as a social comparison practice can elucidate the mechanism of influence of ratings on the behavior of universities.
In this paper, we discuss the methods of endowment management existing in the world and their applicability to the Russian university system. The endowment spending research focuses on the following issues: reinvesting endowment income; identifying the size of expendable endowment income; using the endowment body, not onlyincome; choosing endowment spending policy, rule and rate endowments, etc. We provide an overview of endowment fund financial indicators and endowment spending allocationin Russia. Based on the example of the HSE Endowment Fund, we analyze the use of endowment spending rulesand model of financial indicators for 2008–2014. The University’s Endowment Fund endowment spending policies implement the preservation principle, which may be reasonable in a stable economy. However, the viability of the principle is questionable in the crisis, the more so since the endowment is mostly in rubles. Using net asset valuation methods, the HSE Endowment Fund could provide equity betweengenerations with annual distribution of income in favor of the next and current generations.
This paper explores the organizational and economic response of higher education to the coronavirus pandemic and the emergency transition to distance learning. We analyze the situation across different categories of universities as well as how they respond to campus closures and to the urgent transition to remote student-faculty interactions in learning. We also assess the education system’s need for additional public funding to promote digital learning environments, foster professional development of faculty members, and create job opportunities for students who have lost their jobs that paid their education and/or accommodation. Improvement scenarios are proposed for the funding mechanisms underlying the fulfillment of government contracts for education and science, which have been applied since 2013.
Open statistics is analyzed to examine the successful strategies of implementing continuing education ( CE) programs by vocational schools and universities. The study identifies the industries that benefit from those successful strategies the most. A relationship has been established between CE enrollment and general student population. Implementation of CE programs contributes to financial sastainability of vocational institutions. Successful strategies may ensure from 25 to 40 percent of the total budget in educational institutions that specialize in oil and gas production and chemical processing, medicine, electrical and power engineering, ICT, law and economics. Efficient strategies include narrow specialization and collaboration with strategic enterprises, while online marketing tools play a relatively small part. Continuing education was found to contribute little to financial sustainability of large national universities despite higher CE enrollments, barely accounting for five percent of their total budget. At the same time, a number of small institutions of higher education (regional branch campuses and private universities) can generate over half of their income from CE programs, university status playing a guiding role in student attraction. Analysis of university strategies shows that low interest in implementing CE programs for the good of regional industries is related to the absence of CE-based indicators in annual monitoring reports and the lack of established policies for integrating CE programs into higher education.
The paper tests the hypothesis about better academic performance of graduates from stronger high schools and the nature of correlations between college students’ achievements and their high school performance (whether they performed on average better or worse than their peers) with due regard for school characteristics. Regression analysis is used to measure the correlation between college performance and USE (Unified State Exam) scores, the type of high school, and high school performance (while controlling for individual student characteristics), as well as the fact of receiving regional Governor’s scholarship in addition to student allowance. The sample includes 313 first-year Economics and Management students admitted to National Research University Higher School of Economics (Perm) in 2012 and 2013. Cumulative first-year GPA is used as an indicator of academic performance. As it turns out, graduating from an advanced high school or from a school with high average USE scores in mathematics provides no guarantee of better educational outcomes for first-year students. High school performance correlates positively with academic achievements in college, the degree of correlation depending on school characteristics. Educational outcomes of students who performed better than average in low-performing schools can be explained by the high level of intrinsic motivation typical of academically successful students. Therefore, ignoring the information on college performance of graduates from low-performing schools may lead to underestimating their academic achievement. The fact of receiving a Governor’s scholarship proves to be a significant performance factor for Management students only.