The influence of nonlinear interaction of oppositely directed nonlinear waves in a shallow basin is studied theoretically and numerically within the nonlinear theory of shallow water. It is shown that this interaction leads to a change in the phase of propagation of the main wave, which is forced to propagate along the flow induced by the oncoming wave. The estimates of the undisturbed wave height at the time of interaction agree with the theoretical predictions. The phase shift during the interaction of undisturbed waves is sufficiently small, but becomes noticeable in the case of the propagation of breaking waves.
The mathematical modelling is performed to study the effect of the permeability of the Casparian bands to water and solutes on the formation of the root pressure. It is shown that the pressure in the xylem vessels which stops the flow across a root cut (root pressure) decreases with increase in the permeability of the Casparian bands to solutes at a fixed hydraulic conductivity. However, if the Casparian bands are permeable to water alone and impermeable to solutes, then changes in the root pressure changes are not observed.
The article analyses the effects of new transport infrastructure on transport systems of the 2018 FIFA World Cup host cities. The choice of cities is based on the scale of planned transport infrastructure – Saransk, Kaliningrad and Ekaterinburg experienced substantial interventions. Analysis is conducted using open spatial data on population and street networks. All interventions in transport infrastructure were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and usefulness for the cities after the 2018 FIFA World Cup – scale of improvements in street network connectivity and accessibility of key places in the cities. We identified that investments into new transport infrastructure of Saransk seems to be the most effective in terms of future use. We demonstrated the feasibility of conducting such analysis using only open data, but also identified some issues and pitfalls.
The article questions the thesis of the low migration activity of the Russian population in the way of in-country resettlement in comparison with foreign countries. Reasons prevented a direct comparison of data on internal migration in Russia and other countries had been analyzed. Mainly, they were related to differences in the size of units of administrative and territorial division and diversity in approaches to the definition of in-country migration. Based on the migration data of 2013-2014. it was concluded that Russia and several countries with advanced migration statistics differ substantially. Russia lags behind the leading countries about twice. However, it is superior to other countries, especially in eastern and southern Europe, in terms of migration intensity.
Analysis of internal migration flows by age shows that, in general, Russia and other developed countries have similar age migration profiles. in contrast to other comparable countries, Russian peak at the age of 15-29 years is more clearly defined and biased to the youngest age. It is related to a greater compactness in the life path of socio-demographic events, which leads to migration movements. Differences between the age profile of migration in Russia and other countries in the rest of the age groups do not correspond to our expectations, they are not great.
A review of the literature on internal electrification onboard avionics spacecraft. The influence of space weather on the degree of electrification of the spacecraft. The main responses to the factors affecting the electrification.
The physicochemical principles of the formation of inter-polymer complexes of water-restrictive materials are considered. Analysis of theoretical principles shows that the formation of inter-polymer complexes occurs within a narrow range of pH. Trial operations confirm the effectiveness of water-restrictive materials on the basis of inter-polymer complexes.
Data series of hydrometeorological observations for the Volga Region and Russia as a whole are covered roughly up to 150 past years. The longer series are single. Length of hydrological records for the river runoff is even lesser, up to 50-60 years. The dendrochronological method gives an opportunity to extend exist- ing observational data series into past, if a significant relationship between radial tree growth and a parameter to be reconstructed exists. For the Volga region, we have developed nine pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree ring chronologies and one regional master-chronology (MasterTY). Then, the model is created on the basis of the chronologies, and the reconstruction of runoff for Ilet river (1827-2013) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (1825-2013) is undertaken. The results demonstrate the feasibility of such reconstructions for the Volga region. However, more accurate results are obtained in the reconstruction of the long-term dynamics.
Satellite observations show that the electrostatic instability, which is expected to occur in most cases due to an inhomogeneous energy density caused by a strongly inhomogeneous transverse electric field (shear of plasma convection velocity), occasionally does not develop inside nonlinear plasma structures in the auroral ionosphere, even though the velocity shear is sufficient for its excitation. In this paper, it is shown that the instability damping can be caused by out-of-phase variations of the electric field and field-aligned current acting in these structures. Therefore, the mismatch of sources of free energy required for the wave generation nearly nullifies their common effect.
This article analyzes differences between age-specific interregional migration profiles in Russia and their features. The study relies on the data on internal interregional migration by one-year age groups for the period of 2011–2015, and data on migration between municipal formations by five-year age groups for the period of 2012–2015. The primary method of analysis is to classify age-specific migration profiles. We divided the regions of Russia into two types: with net interregional migration gain and with net migration loss. Then we defined sub-types of regions differed by migration gain (loss) in the key age groups and by age-specific migration rates. The article shows and explains variations in indices of the age-specific intensity of net interregional migration, as well as highlights the impact of migration on the age structure of the population in regions.
The cases of “freak waves” occurred in the period from 2011 to 2018, information on which is currently available, are analyzed. 210 cases of abnormally large waves that caused destruction, human loss and injury, are identified. A map of events is compiled, the sea depth for each case (deep / shallow water, coast) is determined, and the characteristics of freak waves are analyzed.
Northern Eurasian forest-steppe and steppe encompass huge region where observed and projected climate change and in particular change in precipitation regime demonstrate high spatial heterogeneity. In this study, spatial and temporal variations of croplands and grasslands productivity in the main agricultural regions of Russia and adjacent countries are indicated by means of sum annual NDVI time series analysis. For the three decadal periods with different climatic and socio-economic conditions (1980s, 1990s and 2000s) we constructed time series of NDVI extracted from low-resolution remote sensing data (NOAA AVHRR, Terra MODIS) and time series of gridded climate data — precipitation and PDSI. Revealed non-parametric significant trends in sum annual NDVI were analyzed on the concordance of their signs with climate data trends for different for- est-steppe and steppe ecoregions. Spatial analysis and resulted maps demonstrate the predominance of posi- tive NDVI trends throughout the region for the 1980s under favorable climatic conditions whereas the 1990s are characterized with high spatially heterogeneous disagreement between signs of NDVI and climatic trends with more significant anthropogenic impact on general decline in agro-ecosystems’ productivity. In the 2000s the presence of extensive belt elongated through dry and deserted steppes from Lower Don basin to the Eastern Kazakhstan with stable negative NDVI trend under regional aridization verifies results of projected climate change in this region towards the middle of the 21 century.
Clusters of regions on the basis of ecomical conditions of teachers.
In this article the author examines the environmental effects of post-industrialization. The author analyzes the mutuality ecologization and trans-formation of the territorial structure of the world economy. And he gives special attention to the prospects of forming ecolobby in Russia. In conclusion, he speaks about the impact of post-industrial stage of economic development on the global environmental situation.