The paper seeks to generate insights as to the way made to science and in science by one of Russia’s leading social economists and sociologists T. I. Zaslavskaya (1927 – 2013). Zaslavskaya’s way to science is described in connection with her socialization and professionalization, her civic position as well as with the mentoring traditions of her teachers and herself as the Teacher and a founder of her own school of thought. The paper identifies the consistency of key concepts integral to the economic and sociological periods of Zaslavskaya’s academic career and points out the growing expansion and complexity of her research area. Special emphasis is made on the up-to-date significance of the concepts and theories developed by Zaslavskaya over years for social economics, economic and general sociology and an interdisciplinary conceptualization of post-communist transformations.
This paper seeks to generate insights as to the way made to science and life in science by one of Russia's leading social economists and sociologists T.I. Zaslavskaya (1927–2013). Zaslavskaya's way to science is described in connection with her socialization and professionalization, her civic position as well as with the mentoring traditions of her teachers and herself as the Teacher and a founder of her own school of thought. The first part of the article (see Obshchestvennyie nauki i sovremennost’, 2018, no. 6) was devoted to the history of the formation of Zaslavskaya as a person, as a scientist, to the grasping of those principles that later formed the basis of her work as a mentor, creator of her economical and sociological school. This second part identifies the consistency of key concepts integral to the economic and sociological periods of Zaslavskaya's academic career and points out the growing expansion and complexity of her research area. Special emphasis is made on the up-to-date significance of the concepts and theories developed by Zaslavskaya over years for social economics, economic and general sociology and an interdisciplinary conceptualization of post-communist transformations.
We live in the XXIth century. The modern world creates its own attitude to labour. What is happening today in the sphere of labour? Whether the issue of labour’s crisis is still relevant? The hard work of the industrial era becomes a thing of the past. New working practices as well as new challenges for labour are appearing now. Alongside with the growth of unemployment, trudotsentrizm becomes the consequences of technical innovation development. In this regard, there raises the question of the preservation of human capital. Recently, the sharp criticism of the diagnosis of the “end of labour in its classical sense” has been replaced by open hostility to labour in a post-industrial economy and neo-liberalism. What should be done? Shall we reject labour and float freely on the waves of globalization? Or shall we overcome the alienation and return to the understanding of high significance of labor in human life and society.
This paper is devoted the role of civic identity in ethnic diversity acceptance and acculturation expectations of the host population. We place special focus on the level of life satisfaction of the host population as we expect it to moderate the relationship between civic identity and attitudes towards ethnic diversity and migrants. The study involved 219 representatives of the host population Moscow (66 males and 153 females, from 16 to 68 years old, average age – 28,5 years) which were born or living in Moscow for more than 10 years. The results of multigroup path analysis show that among host population representatives with a low level of life satisfaction civic identity is negatively related to a positive attitude towards ethnic diversity. While among host population representatives with a high level of life satisfaction civic identity is not associated with a positive attitude towards ethnic diversity. Besides, that we found that attitudes towards ethnic diversity, mediate the relationship between civic identity and acculturation expectations among representatives of the host population with a low level of life satisfaction. The results of the study underscore the importance of taking into account the well-being of people when studying their relations with members of other cultural groups.
The article describes the dynamics and factors of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with life in Russia
Based on the materials of nationwide representative studies carried out by Institute of Sociology RAS (including the data from 2014-2015), values and attitudes of Russian middle class representatives in the conditions of economic crisis are analyzed. It is shown that the crisis has not changed the overall heterogeneity of Russian society in terms of values. Middle class continues to be characterized by a more pronounced modernist orientations and attitudes in their daily lives; however, they do not support Western model of development at macro level. Middle class is also characterized by priority of personal interests; in conditions of economic crisis they are theoretically willing to make some sacrifices for the support of the country, however, this attitude does not apply to the measures which could significantly affect the quality of their daily lives. Migration attitudes of the middle class (for those who are considering this possibility at all) are dominated by the orientation on temporary relocation abroad rather than permanent residence; the crisis has only strengthened this trend. In assessing inequalities that exist today in Russian society, middle class expresses the view of the entire population, though they feel less affected by them themselves. At the same time representatives of the middle class support the existence of social inequalities of certain depth, provided the legitimacy of their bases – a condition with which, apparently, situation in contemporary Russian society does not comply.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.