Phenomenology - in literal interpretation is none other than the doctrine of phenomena, i.e. about the observed phenomena or events. In modern philosophy, it acts as a method of scientific analysis of consciousness and immanent, a priori structures of human existence. This article is the result of applying this method to setting and understanding the best ways to solve problems directly related to the investigation of crimes committed using modern information technologies. Having resorted to historical generalizations, the author made an attempt to find an answer to the question why, against the backdrop of the scientific achievements of domestic criminalistics, with so many new ideas, concepts, technologies, forensic algorithms and investigation programs, progress in combating crime remains unobservable? The main reason for this state of affairs he sees in the fact that Russian criminalistics for a long time developed apart from the leading foreign research schools. At the same time, such a state of the world is still preserved, despite the global integration processes that have taken hold practically all the countries of the world. As the main direction of overcoming the crisis phenomena, the author positions the implementation in the scientific resources of domestic criminalistics of modern information technologies in general, and, to increase the effectiveness of combating crimes committed using computer and network capabilities, in particular. He considers the fight against them to be an international problem, since measures to prevent, detect, uncover and investigate crimes committed using modern information technologies can not be effective only at the national level, because of the transnational and transborder nature of the Internet itself. Given the continuing increase in the number of its users, which naturally causes their dependence on the information community and the vulnerability of all kinds of cyber attacks, a scientific analysis of the current state of investigation of crimes of this kind is made and recommendations are formulated to improve the effectiveness of this activity.
Статья посвящена проблеме определения границы между действиями исполнителя и организатора преступления. С этой целью фигура организатора анализируется с точки зрения института соучастия, а также в контексте статей, устанавливающих ответственность за создание организованной группы, преступного сообщества и руководство ими. Разобраны недостатки законодательного определения понятия «организатор». Проанализирована диспозиция ч. 1 ст. 210 Уголовного кодекса Российской Федерации с точки зрения отграничения соучастия в преступлении от участия в организованной преступной деятельности. Также предложен вариант изменения терминологии для обозначения субъектов преступлений, предусмотренных в указанной статье. Приводится обзор мнений различных авторов по вопросу соотношения фигуры организатора в контексте института соучастия и организатора преступных сообществ и организованных групп. Рассмотрен на предмет полноты перечень статей, предусматривающих ответственность за создание организованной группы и преступного сообщества и руководство ими, закрепленный в ч. 5 ст. 35 УК РФ. Освещен вопрос квалификации действий лиц, входящих в состав организованной группы или преступного сообщества, при совершении ими конкретного преступления. Рассмотрены случаи, когда такие лица являются исключительно организаторами преступления и когда данная роль совмещается с непосредственным совершением преступления. Автор приходит к выводу об отсутствии в уголовном законодательстве четкой границы между исполнителем и организатором преступления, что приводит к сложностям в квалификации на практике. Предложены возможные пути устранения существующих противоречий между нормами Общей и Особенной частей УК РФ с целью более четкого определения статуса организатора преступления, а именно: изменение формулировки ч. 3 ст. 33; дополнение перечня, содержащегося в ч. 5 ст. 35; изменение названий ряда статей Особенной части УК РФ; редактирование диспозиции ч. 1 ст. 210; отказ от сформированного судебной практикой подхода относительно признания всех участников преступных формирований соисполнителями совершаемого преступления вне зависимости от фактически выполняемой ими роли.
Genuine nature of Islamic Law as an independent legal system manifests itself clearly in its sources. During many centuries the Islamic legal doctrine (Fiqh) was playing this role which was replaced by legislation only in 19-th century. But till now Fiqh is one of the sources of law in Arab countries. The continuing islamization of their legal systems includes codification of Islamic legal doctrine which acquires the role of material (historic) source of law. This process relies on recognition of Sharia as a source of legislation by constitutions of many Arab states. Together with it ordinary legal acts often stress that their contents is also derived from Fiqh. Such feature mainly concerns personal status relations based in majority of Arab countries on legislation derived from views of Islamic legal doctrine. At the same time this doctrine is playing the role of official (judicial) source of contemporary law in the mentioned countries. For instance, in Saudi Arabia Fiqh is still the prevailing source of law compared with statutory acts. In other countries the doctrine status as a judicial source of law is fixed officially. It refers not only to private law but criminal legislation as well. Many legal norms could not be realized without applying Fiqh provisions. In some Arab countries interpretation of legal norms includes appealing to Sharia. Islamic legal doctrine is playing active role as subsidiary source of contemporary law, first of all in private branches of legislation. Such legislation recognizes Sharia, its principles or different schools of Fiqh as subsidiary source. This covers not only personal status legislation which is based totally on Islamic provisions but also civil codes of some Arab countries which are influenced not by Sharia but by European legal culture. Commercial, tax and judicial procedure acts also recognize Islamic legal doctrine as a subsidiary source of law. In Sudan there is a unique situation because in this country Sharia and Fiqh are fixed as subsidiary source of law for entire legal system excluding criminal legislation.
The article is devoted to analysing of theoretical basis and modern practics of organization and fuctionning of shariat courts in Muslim and Western countries as well as in Russia. Different forms and directions of Shariat justice influence upon contemporary judicial systems are covered. Central attention is paid to estimating of perspectives of creating and functionning of Shariat courts in Russia today within its legislation in force in general and concerning arbitration courts and mediating in particular.
The doctrine of international law pays a lot of attention to the formation norm of customary international law. At the same time, it is quite rare to find studies on their evolution and the end of existence. In this article, therefore, based on a dialectical approach, the use of scientific research methods, and such private-scientific methods as a comparative legal method, as well as methods of legal modelling and legal forecasting, the results of the study of the evolution norm of customary international law, as well as their extinction, are presented. In the case of the established norms of customary international law, 142 Law in the Modern World their evolution provides for a stage of their qualitative change, development and is conditioned, first of all, by the needs of the development of inter-State relations. Evolution is accompanied by clarification of the elements of such norms. At the same time, the emergence of a new norm is not possible without violations of existing ones, and offenders, deviating from the established norms, with international legal responsibility, at the same time must explain to other States the reasons for such behavior. This practice is mainly related to the dispositive norms of international law. In order for a new norm of customary international law to be formed, it is necessary that the deviation from the previous norm be massive, initially local and, in the future, universal. The criteria for the formation norm of customary international law are applicable to assess the changes that are taking place. The main factors that may influence the evolution norm of customary international law include the emergence of a non-existent rule of amended new rule in the laws of states, the international treaty, and the new international soft law. Codification and the progressive development of international law contributed to the evolution norm of customary international law. It is important to note that, in the absence of the needs of social development, as well as appropriate practice, the norm of customary international law dies. In this case it is possible to create fundamentally new norms of customary international law, and in the future their evolution
Review of a monograph by G. Carlisle, D. Whitehouse, P. Duquenoy (eds.). E-Health: Legal, Ethical and Governance Challenges. Berlin: Springer, 2013. XIII, 396 pp.
Starting from 2014, the problem of legal liability for violation of anti-doping rules had been thrown into sharp relief in Russia, when reports of the Canadian lawyer Richard McLaren were published one after another, which covered the cases of using manipulations with samples of Russian athletes. The consequences that nowadays manifest themselves in the Russian sports community are off to be comprehended, and the negative impact they have had on the results of our state’s domestic and foreign policy will only have an effect after a few decades. The exclusion of national teams from participation in international competitions, the mass disqualification of high-class athletes, the ban on holding of international competitions in Russia is not a complete list of measures applied to the Russian Federation by international sports organizations. The state is trying to level out the situation and one of the anti-crisis areas of focus is the revision of the anti-doping national doctrine and changes of the Russian legislation aimed at upgrading of liability not only for the use of doping in sports, but also for encouraging such use, distribution of prohibited drugs among athletes and coaches. By virtue of these circumstances, the issue of the legal liability of athletes, coaches and other persons for violating of anti-doping rules appears to be particularly relevant. For resolution of the above-mentioned problems, firstly, it is necessary to determine the types of legal liability for doping, to determine the subjects of such liability, to investigate the types and conditions of the application of sanctions for such violations, as well as the established rules for appealing punishing court rulings. Notable in this matter is the fact that the anti-doping program has an international background and the main acts that regulate the researched group of public relations are international acts (conventions and codes) that take precedence over Russian legal acts, due to the ratification of the specified international conventions by our state. The analysis will identify the gaps in the doping legislation and determine the prospects and directions for its development and improvement.
While researching, the author used the following methods: historical, system - structural, logical and dialectical (general scientific methods), as well as formally - legal, comparative - legal, legal - dogmatic and other special methods.
At the end of the article the author makes the conclusions regarding the results of the research and propose changes to the current legislation of Russia.